History From America's Most Famous Valleys
Life and Times of
Sir William Johnson, Bart.,
by William L. Stone
Albany: J. Munsell, 78 State Street, 1865.
APPENDIX No. 3.
Private Manuscript Diary, Kept by Sir William Johnson at Niagara and Oswego, 1759.
"The garrison of Niagara surrendered July 25th at 7 in the morning. The number of which consisted of 607 men and 11 officers, besides a number of women, children, &c. The former to be sent to, England by the way of New York, and escorted to Oswego by a detachment of the 46th, consisting of 300, the latter to the 1st French post with one Priest.
"Officers' Names in Garrison.
''Chevalier Pouchot, captain of the regiment; De Bearn Condt
Vilar, captain of the regiment. La Saire Servier, captain of the Royal Rouissilon;
Chevalier De La Roche Veinay, captain of marines; Bouraffons, commanding officer
of artillery; Consnoyer, lieut. of a detachment of marines; Soluignag, officer
of the regm't of Bearn; Le Chevalier DeLarminac, lieutenant of marines; Joncair,
captain of marines.
"Morambert, Lieut., De Guyendre, Chirurgeon, left to take care of the sick.
"July 26th; They embarked, after grounding their arms, and proceeded to Oswego.
"List of the officers, and cadets, taken in the action of July 24th, the whole consisted of 30 officers, of which three only escaped, the following were taken prisoners, and the rest killed, viz:
"Chevalier De Villier,
"Mr. Gramelin, Captain of Militia.
" Dequindre, Col.
"La Motte Domeille, Major,
" Mr. Duclos a la garde.
"Boiford, Chirurgeon major with their attendants.1
"27th; I divided among the several nations, the prisoners and scalps amounting to two hundred and forty-six, of which ninety-six were prisoners. The officers I with difficulty released from them, by ransom, good words, &c.2
"28th; The greatest part of all the nations set off in boats with a deal of plunder for their several countries.
"Do. Die. Buried Brigadier General Prideaux in the chapel, and Colonel Johnson with a great deal of form. I was chief mourner. The evening of the 27th, I sent 8 whale boats with a party of above 30 men to reconnoiter Fort Toronto, and on their return, propose to send to destroy it.
"Colonel Haldimand arrived here with Captain Williamette from Oswego, to claim the command, which I refused giving up, as my commission gave me rank of him. He gave up the point, until General Amherst's pleasure was known, which may be soon, as Col. Haldimand, on receipt of my letter, wrote him upon it.
"In order to secure this important post to his majesty, it is necessary to leave for the present a garrison of 700 men, who are also to repair the works, which have been hurt by our cannon, and put the fort in the best posture of defence they can, with the assistance of an engineer, who is to be left here for that purpose.
"To have the two vessels fitted out, armed, and manned to escort the batteaux with the remainder of the army to Oswego; also endeavor to take the French schooner.
"Artillery and ammunition to leave here, and have Captain Stretchy's opinion in writing thereupon--also some artillery men and gunners.
"The French officers and other prisoners to take with me to Oswego, and send them to York in order to be sent to England.
"To write Governor De Lancey to send all the French prisoners to England as soon as possible.
1 Johnson probably took the names down by sound.
2 Referring to the prisoners taken in the action of the 24th.
"5 days' provisions for the troops' journey to Oswego, and to get a return of the remainder.
"Ammunition to carry with me to Oswego, and some artillery- also working tools-good ship carpenters to send for immediately to New York; and everything necessary for building and completing two vessels of force, without which we cannot maintain the two posts of Oswego and Niagara, particularly the latter; also rigging for two other smaller vessels already built; about forty or fifty good house carpenters to be immediately sent up to make a fort at Oswego, and repair Niagara.
"To write the secretary of state and send him a plan of Niagara; also, give him an idea of the consequence of it to his majesty's Indian interest; the extension of the free trade, and, above all, its cutting off the communication between Canada and Louisiana.
"To send Governor DeLancey a copy of the plan of the fort as soon as I can, in order to have it printed, or plates of it published for the benefit of the public.
"To write to, and settle with the general how far my limits extend, for taking care of or managing Indian affairs, that I may regulate my passes and Indian trade.
"29th I gave the French officers shoes, stockings, and blankets I wrote by De Normandy to Oswego for all the ship carpenters to come here, to build 2 vessels of 18 guns each, and to bring all the naval stores, and as much provision, as they can, along as soon as may be; the house carpenters then to repair the battoes and make a number of oars, paddles, &c., against I get there; a detachment from the York regiment to come with the convoy. Do. Die. I wrote a letter to the secretary of state with a short account of the siege of Niagara; also sent him a plan of the fort, and a return of the killed and wounded in the siege and action of the 24th July-being 60 killed and 180 wounded, besides-3 Indians killed and 5 wounded - 63 killed, 185 wounded.
"30th, At night Lieutenant Francis returned from Toronto, and reported that the enemy had burned and abandoned that post, and destroyed many things which they could not take along, viz: working utensils, arms, &c. A Chippaway chief came to me with Mr. Francis in order to speak with me.
"31st. I settled the garrison to be left here, and gave orders accordingly; also the train engineer, artificers, ammunition and provision. Also ordered the building of two good armed vessels at this place to carry 16 or 18 guns each.
"Do Die. I wrote a letter to General Amherst with a plan of the fort, a list of the killed and wounded, also a return of the effectives now here, and a list of artillery stores wanted for Niagara, given by Captain Stretchy. With which I sent Captain John Butler express and 7 of my batteau men with him.
"August 1st, 1759. I went to see Niagara Falls with Colonel Haldimand, Mr. Ogilvie, and several officers, escorted by three companies of the light infantry. Arrived there about 11 o'clock; in my way at the thither end of the carrying place, I met a flag of truce from Presque Isle, desiring to know the number of officers I had in my hands, from the action of the 24th, and begging I would advance them anything they might want, they being men of fortune and credit. One letter was from the commandant of Presque Isle named Chevalier Poitneuf, the other from Mons. De Couagne, who came with the flag of truce, with 9 men and Indians. I ordered them to stay in the woods, and left Mr. Rogers with a guard with him, until I sent a message to them and provisions. The artillery was this day partly shipped on board the batteaus, the readier to be shipped to-morrow, with ammunition, &c.
"22d. I wrote a letter to the Chevalier - by the flag of truce, and sent Captain Me Leon with a party to escort them to their boats. This day I ordered all the boats, &c., to be made ready for embarking the troops, &c., which are to go to Oswego, in order to leave this on the morrow. Spoke to the Chippaway sachem, Tequakareigh. With a string and two belts of wampum, I bid him welcome and shook him by the hand. By the 2d, which was a black belt, I took the hatchet out of the hands of his, and all the surrounding nations, recommended hunting and trade to them, which would be more for their interest than quarreling with the English, who have ever been their friends, and supplied them at the cheapest rates with the necessaries of life, and would do it again, both here and at Oswego, provided they quit the French interest. This I desired he would acquaint all the surrounding nations with. A black belt, the third and last, was to invite his, and all other nations living near them, to repair early next spring to this place and Oswego, when there should be a large assortment of all kinds of goods fit for their use; also recommended it to them to send some of their young men here to hunt and fish for the garrison, for which they would be paid, and kindly treated. Told them at the same time, that I would send some of my interpreters, &c., with him on the lake to the next town of the Mississageys, with whom I desired he would use his best endeavors to convince them that it would he their interest to live in friendship with the English, and that we had no ill intentions against them, if they did not oblige us to it. To which he answered, and said it gave him great pleasure to hear so good words, and was certain it would be extremely agreeable to all the nations with whom he was acquainted, who, with his, were wheedled and led on to strike the English, which he now confessed he was sorry for, and assured me they never would again, and that should the French, according to custom, ask them to do so any more, they would turn them out of the country. He; at the same time, begged earnestly that a plenty of goods might be brought here and to Oswego, and there, they, as well as all the other nations around,. would come and trade; and their young men should hunt for their brothers whom they now took fast hold of by the hand, and called upon the Six Nations, who were present, to bear witness to what he had promised. He also desired I would send some person to the Mississagay town, near where Toronto stood, to hear what he should say to that nation, and to see that he -would deliver my belts and message honestly. I clothed him very well, and gave him a handsome present to carry home. Then took from about his neck a large French medal; gave him an English one, and a gorget of silver, desiring whenever he looked at them, he would remember the engagements he now made.
This day I agreed with Mr. De Couagne to serve at Niagara as interpreter, until relieved, at the rate of £12 per mouth. Colonel Haldimand, with Captain Williamore, set off for Oswego with 2 whale boats. I desired him, on his arrival there, to send away the French women to La Galette immediately, with a good officer, capable to make remarks and draw the situation of that part of the country, so that I may know what to do in case it should be thought proper to attempt anything that way. Also have boats ready against I arrive at Oswego, to send the French officers in for New York.
"3d. I gave Lieut. Nellus and De Couagne orders to go over the lake with the Chippaway chief, and call the Missessagays, and speak with the commanding officer of Niagara and Oswego; also to trade with and hunt for their brethren the English. They, the interpreters, are to remain at Niagara, until farther orders, and assist the commanding officer here all in their power.
This day I ordered some guns for the vessel and carriages, so as to be ready to-morrow morning to sail for Oswego with me. I sent a string of wampum by three Chenusios to their nation, telling them now my surprise at their going away from hence in so a---- 1 manner, not allowing me a meeting where I intended to have said something to them, and the rest of the nations-3 strings wampum. I sent them a white belt to thank them for the good salve they gave me for my wounds, meaning Niagara, and to desire they would continue to have a careful eye over it, and not suffer any nation to insult, or hurt it.
"Saturday August 4th.-I was to embark at -5 o'clock in the morning with the troops, &c., for Oswego, but the two French schooners appearing off harbor prevented our embarkation until 5 in the evening, when I left Colonel Farquhar everything in charge; also some Indian goods to give occasionally to such Indians as might come upon business to him. Then set off with all the Yorkers except one company; all the light Infantry, and grenadiers, and the general's company of the 44th regiment, and arrived at Oswego, Tuesday, about 3 o'clock P. M., with everything safe.
"Wednesday 8th.-Inquired into the state of the provisions, and everything else, and find provisions so short, and slowly sent up, that I fear those two posts on the lake will suffer greatly, unless other measures are taken to supply them, than hitherto has been. I sent away Ensign Brown D. I. M. to Fort Stanwix, also Major Hogan, in order to hurry up the bateaux with provisions. Also sent from hence this day 21 French officers with a captain, 2 subalterns, and sixty men, as a guard to Fort Stanwix. I also sent away to Fort Stanwix all sick and wounded, as were judged by the doctor unfit for service, or likely to continue so during the campaign, to prevent the consumption of provisions.
"9th.-I was regulating the camp and works.
"10th.-Getting returns of the state of everything belonging to the army, and writing to General Amherst, Governor De Lancey, &c. Do Die; Some Mohawks, Onondagas, &c., arrived here from Niagara.
"11th.-I dispatched an express, one ----to Albany, with letters to the general and others. Also sent to Captain Jn. Butler to come up with what number of Mohawks, and others he could, immediately.
1 Illegible in the manuscript.
At the same time, I sent Captain Fonda, Lieutenant Hair, an interpreter, and-others, to Onondaga to call the young men of that nation here, to go upon service. I sent a black belt of wampum by him to speak with, and to send it to the other nations from thence. In the afternoon Captain De Fere arrived with part of the escort, went to the French garrison, and brought some provisions with them.
"12th.-In the morning, the little schooner arrived here from Niagara with Captain De Normandy, and brought me a letter from Lieutenant Colonel Farquhar, commanding officer there. It rained very hard, which stopped the workmen. Very windy also.
"In the afternoon I went to the woods, where the party were at work cutting and drawing timber, also building a small redoubt to cover the working parties-cut vistas through the woods, also, for the same purpose.
"Monday 18th.-Very Stormy in the morning. Had the schooner loaded notwithstanding, with the rigging, &c., belonging to our vessel, and fifty barrels of provisions. I wrote Colonel Farquhar by her, and employed Mr. Thody to go, and bring the new schooner down to this place. Gave orders to seize all sutler's rum, and put it in the king's store. Sent an order to the officer commanding at the falls, not to suffer any bateaux, &c., to pass with sutlers, or others, without they take the opportunity of an escort.
"Tuesday 14th.-Sent an order to the Oneida Lake post, to keep 50 of the Provincials, who were a guard to the French garrison, to remain there, in the room of 50 sailors there, who are to come here in order to navigate the vessels. I sent Lieutenant Francis with 60 men and 2 Indians, in 3 bateaux, to Irondequat and the Seneca river, in order to pick up, and bring along with him, all the whale boats, and bateaux he may find there, or along the lake, with 10 days' provisions. Two Yorkers just now arrived here from the royal galley, and say that on seeing our schooner, the master and all the crew run ashore, and left her at anchor, about 8 miles this side of Sodus. They have seen nothing of the remainder of the crew since. I ordered them to the guard, until the affair is cleared up. ----8 at night; 3 more of her crew arrived, and reported her taken by the enemy, and her masts, rigging, and anchor cut away.
"Wednesday 13th.-Early in the morning more of her crew arrived, and the galley, also, brought in by some of Dr. Normandy's crew, with a letter from him. This day I sent some Onondagas to Swegatchie as spies; and on their return,, they are to bring me a prisoner if possible, for which they are to have 100 dollars; they are to be back in 5 or 6 days. .
"Wednesday 16th.-Works carrying on as usual. Block houses building in the wood, and vistas cutting to the lake, and a battery, to prevent the enemy's annoying our working parties.
"Thursday 16th.-Brigadier General Gage arrived here in the afternoon with 300 drafts for the 3 regiments here. I gave up the command to him, and General Amherst's instructions to the late Brigadier Prideaux, also his last letter to Do., which I received on my way from Niagara. He then showed me a letter or two he received from General Amherst, with orders to proceed to this place, and take the command. Also to proceed to Niagara, if not yet taken. If taken and the troops returned, then to proceed to La Galette and take post there, which (in case General Wolfe should be defeated) would make a frontier, with Niagara, Oswego, and Crown Point. He told me that on reading General Amherst's letter, he gave him as his opinion, that he thought it impracticable to establish a post there in so short a time, and furnish it with provisions. General Gage brought up about 140 barrels of provisions, only, with this reinforcement. We have now about 3 weeks' provisions here for the whole- the New Hampshire regiment coming by land with cattle.
"Friday 17th.-Fine weather. General Gage agreed to the plan of the fort proposed by Engineer Lowers, viz: a pentagon. Accordingly, they set about it, and marked out the ground. This day I made up an affair between Colonel Massey and Captain Forbes, which, otherwise, was to be tried by a general court martial. The drafts were this day divided among the 3 regiments here.
"Saturday 18th - A fine morning. Colonel Haldimand came to my tent, and on our talking over several matters, among other things, I asked him whether the general had said anything to him about advancing to Swegatchy. He answered, that the general had showed him all his instructions, but said nothing about going to La Galette, on which I gave him my opinion that our going to La Galette and destroying it was practicable, and might favor General Amherst's designs, but to remain there was impossible on account of provisions, and being too late to make such a respectable work there, as the French would not be able to take. He expressed himself against attempting it, for the above reasons and further, that the enemy might carry on an expedition against it in the winter, adding, also, that if one of our convoys should be cut off, it -would ruin the whole, and oblige us to abandon even this post, &c.---- General Gage expressed himself the same way, and added, farther, that his honor -was as dear to him as General Amherst's could be to him, and did not understand running his head against a wall, or attempting impossibilities, with a great deal more to that purpose, and what I thought not unreasonable, after telling me the state of everything, particularly artillery, ammunition and provision. I told General Gage that I thought our going to and destroying La Galette practicable, but not to take post there, for the several reasons given to Lieutenant Colonel Haldimand the same day. The general then said he would get a few stray boats built to carry each a piece of large cannon in the bow, to guard against the French vessels, and would then make a trial.-- I asked him then, whether he would have me send for the several nations of Indians to come immediately and join us, to which he made no answer.
"Sunday August 19th.-Fine weather. Lieutenant Francis, with his party, returned with several whale boats &c., from Irondequat. Also came in this day, some Onondagas, and Chenusios, who told me they were sent to let me know that several sachems and others were coming to Oswego to meet me, also two sachems of the Mississagues, and would be here in four or five days; that they had a great many furs and skins to trade, and hoped there would be plenty of goods for that purpose. I represented to General Gage, the necessity of having traders come up here, and to Niagara, for that end. He told me to act in that as I thought best for the service, and to give papers to such as I thought desired them.
"Monday 20th.-Cloudy weather. I gave General Gage a rough draft of the River St. Lawrence from Frontinac to the island below La Galette, drawn by the Red Head, an Ondaga Indian. Dined with General Gage, after which we took a walk, and talked together about going down to La Galette-to which he agreed, as soon as artillery, vessels, &c., could be got ready. Mr. Brown arrived from fort Stanwix with 24 bateaus with provisions, and rum &c.
"Tuesday 21st.-Very stormy, and rained all night-continued stormy all day. I wrote a letter to my brother by Lieutenant Linall of the Highland regiment; another to Kelly, Corry, Date, Wallace, and my daughter Nancy. Sent another to Molly, by Hance Clerffiont, not to come here.
"Wednesday 22d.-Very stormy, and rain. Lieutenant Linall came for my letters, and set off for army with General Amherst by whom I sent word I should have as many Indians, as necessary. Provisions being scarce, I cannot collect a great number. Major Graham arrived about 2 o'clock, with 2 of the Highlanders, About 6 in the evening the schooner arrived from Niagara. When she left, the evening before, all well there, By letters from thence, I learn that the Mississagays came there on my invitation, and have made peace with us, as by Colonel Farquahar's letter, and Lieutenant Neller's will appear, which letters must be entered in the Indian Records. Captain Fonda returned from Onondaga with the Bunt and others of that nation, and tells me there,will be about 100 of that nation here to-morrow. He brought me a letter from Mr. Croghan, dated July 20th, and brought by Tiaquandean, an Onondaga warrior, returning with five prisoners and some scalps from the Catawbas' country. :
"Thursday 23d.-Fine weather. The Bunt, chief of Onondaga, with several of his nation, came to my tent.- I bid them welcome; told them I was glad to see them, and, as I heard they were not yet all assembled, would defer saying anything upon business, until they arrived, when I would let them know what news I had, and the reason of my sending for them. Then ordered pipes, tobacco, a dram, and some punch, and sent an officer to see them take up their ground for encampment, also to draw provisions, so parted. They soon got drunk, and were very troublesome.--This day my express returned after delivering his letters at Albany, and brought a packet from General Amherst, for Brigadier Gage and me. His to me was dated the 6th at Crown Point, very kind and polite, and pressing me to get as many Indians as I can to join General Gage on another enterprise. Received also a letter from Dirck Vanderhuyden of London, by which he appears in my debt £144.4.7. sterling for ginsing of mine which lay in his hands a long time, and now sold at 3 c, & 3-3 ptt.
"Friday 24th.-Fine morning. I propose this day speaking to the Indians.--All drunk, could not meet them. Major Christie arrived about 12 o'clock from Crown Point in 10 days. Brought me a letter from General Amherst, and another from Colonel Eyre. General Gage shewed me his letter from the general-also all his to him, to Mr. Kilby, Country, &c., in all, settling the state of the army. Provisions, artillery, boats, and tools, which, when ready, he would lose no time in following his orders. Major Christie told me he had heard at Canajoharie that Captain Butler -was passed there on his way hither, so that I soon expect him with the Indians. The schooner is this day sent to Niagara, for one 18 pounder-2 fourteen pounders, some shot and other things for our expedition, which I fear will delay -us.
"Saturday 25th.-Fine weather. About 11 o'clock, 3 bateaux, with Senecas, Chenusios, to the amount of 70, arrived from their country, and fired 3 volleys when near our camp, which was returned by the guard of the 14th battalion of royal artillery. I then sent Captain Fonda and an interpreter to show them their ground for encampment, the opposite side of the river, and get them provisions. The same time Old Saquerisera, sachem of Onondaga, and his party came to my tent; wished me joy of our success at Niagara, and wished a continuence of it. I thanked them, and told them as soon as it suited them, I should be glad they would all meet, and allow me an opportunity of acquainting them what had passed between the Northern Indians and me, since they parted with me at Niagara -also some other matters which concerned our mutual interest. They promised to give me notice when they were ready, and so parted.
"Sunday 26th.-Fine weather. The interpreter Prindup arrived from Onondaga with above fifty warriors, and a number of women and children. Encamped them over the river, and sent them-word I would meet them all this afternoon. The interpreter tells me the messenger who was sent with my belt to call the Indians, returned last Wednesday from Cayuga, and reported that a great number of that nation, as well as Seneeas, were on their way hither, and would be soon here. They got an ox among them this morning. No news yet from General Wolfe except what was in the prints. This day General Gage desired I would not yet let the Indians know our design of going to La Galette, but endeavor to get a party of them to fetch a prisoner for intelligence, from Cadaraghqui first. In the evening I went over and condoled their losses by sickness &c., with three strings of wampum, and told them as it was then late I would meet them next morning at this camp. Two Onondagoes arrived ., -with an account of the enemy's taking one, Mr. Bean, a sutler, prisoner, and killing his two bateaux men, and destroying his bateaux this side of the Oswego Falls. I acquainted General Gage of it, and advised him to send one hundred of the light infantry in whale boats to cut off their retreat,and get 50 Indians to go with them. 10 o'clock at, night.
"Monday 27th.-Still good weather, but windy. About 9 o'clock a party of the Onondaga warriors, with their speaker, came to see me at my tent, where I gave them a dram, pipes, and tobacco, and bid them welcome as customary. They told me they had a number of arms and utensils out of order, which they begged might be mended. I told them our smiths here were much employed, however at times they should mend such things for them as they wanted most, and that as soon as I got home, I would provide a smith to work in their country for them. They then parted, and I went to meet the rest in council. About 12 o'clock, the Onondagas and Senecas met, when the chief of Chenussio returned with three strings of wampum, the compliment of the ceremony of condolence. After which I told them what had passed between me and the chief of the Chippaway Nation at Niagara, as well as what the Mississagay had done in consequence thereof, which gave great satisfaction. I, then desired they would let me know what news they had from the Ohio, and other parts; when the Chenusio chief, named Karaghyianaghqui told, as follows, viz: that after the battle of Belle Famille, the Ottawas, and others, then with the enemy, held a council at the Falls, and came to a resolution to go back to Niagara, and speak with the English, and Six Nations, and make peace, but the French would not allow them, on which they, notwithstanding, sent 2 of their people to Chenusio, to know whether they were angry with them for the part they had acted, and to assure them they were much pressed to it by the French. The Senecas reminded them of the friendly messages they had sent them last year to Teughsaghruntie, which they expected they would have regarded. They told them now, that they were not angry, and desired the two Mississagays to return as soon as they could, with said answer. Soon after another of that nation arrived, charged with the same business, to whom the Chenusios returned for answer, that they had delivered what they had to say to the first two messengers, and had not [anything ?] to say further, but to recommend a speedy return to them with their answer. They were not gone when these Indians left home. The chief sachem then told me and the Onondagas, that some of their nation, who came from Ohio, told that the French had burned and abandoned Wenanga, [Venango?] Fort La Riviere [de] Boeuf, and Presque Isle, and that the garrisons retired to Detroit. This they affirmed for truth. The Chenusio chief then spoke with a string of wampum as follows:
"Brother: I can now with pleasure acquaint [you] that these Indians, whom you have so often called from the southward, are arrived in our country, and as they have left their plantations, cornfields, &c., must now suffer for the want of provisions, unless assisted by you this year, and we for their behalf earnestly request you will assist them, as they are now come to incorporate with us-Gave 3 strings." The new vessel hove in sight while we were met, which I told them was called the Mississagay. Her size and name pleased them all much. I then told them as it was late, I would meet them the next day, and talk farther to them on other matters-so parted.,
"At 7 in the evening, the scout returned from a river, about 20 miles from here, when the Indians found by the tracks, &c., that the party which scalped our people the day before were gone. Mr. De Couagne arrived with the Mississagay schooner, and tells me he thinks that that nation, as also the Ottawas, are very sincere in what they have said, and determined to settle a firm alliance and trade with us, if properly managed, and encouraged. This evening rained very hard. General Gage came to my tent and told me he intended to leave about 300 (1) men to carry on the works, and carry the rest with him. He ordered the survey of the boats to be continued until all examined.
"Tuesday 28th.-Blustering weather. This morning wind at N. W. I sent for the Bunt, speaker of Onondaga, and 2 Seneca chiefs, viz., Karaghyianaghqui and Belt, to whom I repeated what I intended to say to all the nations present, and to those not here, who are to deliver it to-morrow morning, to the whole in my presence at their own camp, and is as follows:
"29th.-"Brethren: I have received messages from the Mississagays, and other nations on the lake, very friendly to us, and you. They, among other things, earnestly desire an extension and plentiful trade may be carried on by us at Niagara, and this place, so that they and all other nations around them, may be supplied with the necessaries of life, at as cheap a rate as can be afforded. This is what his majesty has in view; and the building the several forts you see along the country is purely to protect you, and such a trade
1 The figures in the manuscript are indistinct. They are designed either for 300 or 900.
from the insults of our troublesome enemy the French. I, therefore, by this belt of wampum, desire that you will not be uneasy or alarmed at them.
A white belt."
"Brethren: I understand there are some of our people who have deserted; others who are by some means or other come among you, and harbored by you. As it is not right to keep them among you, or detain them, I expect they [will] be all delivered up tome as soon as you conveniently can-and for the future that you do not allow any to come and settle among you, without our consent.
"Brethren: As you have taken our hatchet and used it successfully this campaign, I must desire you to continue making use of it, as much as is in your power, against your and our common enemy the French, and that you remain here with his majesty's troops, and be ready to join them in any operations, which may be carried on during the season. This will gain you credit with his majesty and all his subjects your brethren, and with the blessing of God, greatly contribute to put an end to the war; after which, with the regulations that may be made in trade, you will live peaceably and be a happy people. And this, I strongly recommend to you all by this belt of wampum. "
"Brethren of the Seneca Nation: I am glad to hear that all those of your people, who were living at Ohio, and dispersed about, are now come to settle among you. It is right to settle in bodies, as by that means, you will be more respectable. You see, brethren, our hands are full at present, putting our new acquisitions into a state of safety, and reestablishing Oswego as fast as we can, for your interest as well as ours; so that really we have enough to do, until this hurry is over, to carry up the necessary supply of-provisions for the use of the army. Notwithstanding, you may be assured, all assistance in our power will be given at Niagara, and here, to such as are really in distress.
A string of wampum."
"Thursday 30th.-The schooner arrived with Captain Walton of the train, and three-pouuders, tools, &c. An express from General Amherst came in, by whom I had a letter dated Crown Point, August 21st, an answer to mine of the 9th; General Gage had also a letter. Some letters and papers mention General Wolfe's having begun to bombard Quebec, the twelfth of last month; that the French army, under the command of Major Hourlemazhe, were entrenched on an Island six miles from St. Jeans, whither General Amherst was to proceed as soon as a sixteen gun frigate was finished. In the evening, I went over the river to receive the Indians answer, to what I had said to them the day before. Being met, the Onondaga Speaker arose, and asked the Senecas whether they were ready. The Seneca chief, named Karaghyianaghqui, answered they were, and spoke as follows:-Present, Captains Fonda and Lotteridge; Lieutenants Claus and Hair; Clement and Printop, interpreters.
"Brother Goraghko Warraghiyagey, and you Brethren of the Onondaga Nation: Give attention to what I am now going to say in behalf of the. Senecas, and Chenusios. The news which our friend Warraghiyagey told us yesterday from the Mississagays, and other distant nations, and the assurances he gave us of his Majesty's intentions toward us, and all nations who were inclined to live in friendship with him, as well as that the several forts which he was now building in our country, were to cover them from any attempts of the enemy, and protect the trade, which was to be carried on with them at said posts, gave us much satisfaction, as we hope it will to you, and all our allies; being sensible it must prove greatly to our mutual advantage, if carried on in (In honest manner, which by this belt, we entreat it may.
Gave a belt."
"Brother: Your request, concerning such of your people as are among us, shall be complied with, but it will require a little time to collect them, being dispersed among the several villages around us. You may depend upon it, they will be delivered to you at your house, or to the governor of Philadelphia, from whose government, we understand, most of them have been taken by the Delawares, Shawanese, &c. We will (showing the belt) take your belt through the nations and show it to them, and then send it to our brethren of Onondaga, who will doubtless return it to you, with such of their people as they may have.
"Brother: You yesterday strongly recommended to us to persevere, and make good use of the axe you had given us, against the French, as long as the war continued, which you were of opinion could not be very long. We of the Seneca Nation do assure you, brother, that we will assist our brethren the English, while the war lasts; and wish it to end honorably.
Returned the belt.
"Then the Onondaga speaker came to me from his council, and assured me, they would do the same, as well as the Seneca nation. They then asked me, what news we had by the express, I told them the account we had from Quebec, and as ended the meeting. I privately spoke to Bunt, the speaker, and others, to encourage their young men to go upon immediate service. They said they would.
"31st- Red Head came, and told me he would set off for La Galette on to-morrow, in order to get a prisoner for our intelligence. He and party were fitted out with every necessary, and  gave them money to buy fresh provision for a feast as usual. This afternoon, I advised the general to send a flag of truce to La Galette and Frontenac, to inquire for and demand the officers who ran away from the guard at Port Herkimer. He agreed to it and prepared a letter, and intends to send Lieutenant Baker with it. I sent away this day, a letter to General Amherst. I took a German deserter's information this day, and read it to the general. This day, constant rain; no work carried on.
"Saturday the 1st of September.-Weather pretty good, and moderate. I fitted out a party of eleven Onondagas and Senecas who are to bring a prisoner from La Galette, if o possible, and all the intelligence they can of the enemy's strength, and the station of the vessels. They are to be back in ten days, if well. I sent a belt of black and white wampum by them to the Swegatchie Indians, and any others they may see, advising them all to go out of our way, and quit the French interest. If they continue obstinate, and will not take my advice, they must blame themselves for the consequence, which I think will be fatal to them, we being determined to carry that place at any rate. I gained all the intelligence I could from the Indians, of the navigation of the River St. Lawrence to La Galette, which I gave the general. About 12 o'clock, Mr. Baker set off for Cadaraghqui in a whale boat, with a letter from General Gage, demanding the officer and two privates of Niagara garrison, who ran away from Fort Herkimer. The sachems of Onondaga came to beg I would stop Red Head's party, and allow them to send others there with a charge to the Swegatchies, to quit the place immediately. I gave them a very smart reprimand, and told them I would rather go without an Indian, than to have any with me who were not quite hearty. On which they told me, they would all go with me whenever I called upon them. I told them I was so much ashamed of their backwardness in going on a scout, that I had a good mind to ask the general's liberty to go on that service myself, without a man of them, as it appeared to me, they either were afraid, or unwilling to have that nest destroyed; which made them look very grave. The Seneca sachems, who were attending without, sent me word they bad something to say; and would be glad to be heard, on which the others broke up, and they came in. The speaker said he was very sorry at the Five Nations' abrupt manner of parting after the surrender of Niagara, which did not allow me a meeting with them, as they since found by the messages I sent them to their country from Niagara, by some of their own people, I intended. He assured me that due regard would be had, by their nation, to the directions sent them at that time, and that they would keep a good look out so that nothing should hurt the people then, if in their power. We then made an apology, for no more of that nation coming at this time, and said it was owing to the death of the chief of all the warriors, who died the third day after their return, which, according to their custom, puts a stop to every kind of business, until his death is properly condoled. He then returned a black belt of mine, sent them sometime ago. A Belt. He then said a great deal concerning those, begging that goods might not be sold them too dearly, that they had now with them a parcel of skins and furs, which they wished to get rum and goods for, and not be obliged to carry them back so far. So ended. I then recommended to their young men here present, to exert themselves now, and not return until the end of the campaign. I promised them that they should have their skins, &c., exchanged, and that some traders are gone to Albany for goods, some time ago for that purpose, and daily expected. They returned many thanks and parted.
"Sept. 2d.-Fine weather. Two Oneidas and two squaws set off with a white belt from the sachems, for Swegatchie, in order to bring me intelligence, and to call all the Swegatchie Indians from thence immediately. Red Head's party of eleven men, stopped by the sachems, as they think he would only inflame matters.
"Sept. 3d.-About 8 o'clock, the sachems of Onondaga and Seneca came to my tent, and told me that the Oneidas or Tuscaroras would not come, as they heard, by some of their people who understand English, from the soldiers at Fort Stanwix, that as soon as all the nations were assembled at Oswego, the English would give them as much liquor as they would drink, then fall upon and destroy them. They, the Oneidas, &c., would wait the event, and in such case be ready to fall upon the English in their turn. They told me that a great many of the Cayugas were on their way hither, but hunted a little by the road, being a plentiful place of game. They said that a drove of cattle passed their town, and would, be here this day. About 12 o'clock, I set off for Little Sodus in a whale boat, with five Indians. Captain Johnson, myself, and two bateau men, to shoot ducks, &c. In the evening, it rained and blew very hard. Got to Sodus about five o' clock; a very pretty shore, and a large bay with a creek running easterly; navigable as far as Captain Lotteridge went, about four miles, for a vessel. Rained all night upon us without covering.
"Sept. 4th.-We all went out to shoot ducks, &c. Returned about 12 with fourteen ducks and one otter, and stopped at all the creeks and ponds by the way, which are many. There is one creek about eight miles from Oswego, which I think would be a better passage than by the Suego (Oswego?] falls. The Indians told me it was navigable for boats to the head, which was near the Three Rivers. About 6 o'clock we arrived at Oswego, and found nothing new since we left it, only that the news of three of our men being scalped at the Falls was contradicted. The enemy were seen there, but did no harm. The eighteen pounder had been three times fired onboard the little gally, which bore it very well.
"Wednesday 5th,.-Wind strong at S. East. Last night a Cayuga runner arrived, and told me that an express from his nation had overtaken them about two miles above the Seneca Falls, and reported to them that a young Indian of said nation had, in their absence, killed a daughter of Ottawana, a sachem of Cayuga, which made them all turn back, except the Post; they were eighty-four men in the whole. I this morning acquainted General Gage with it, and told him I thought an express from me would bring them here in six days or thereabouts, and desired to know, whether he would have me send for them. He told me, I should send for them, if they could be got here in that time. I proposed to him the regulation of trade here, and at Niagara, with the Indians, as without some regulation, the trade would be so unjust, that all Indians who felt it, would be dissatisfied, and spread it among all nations, which would greatly hurt his majesty's Indian interest, and be the means of unsettling all that had been done by us for the promotion of it. In the evening the Seneca and Onondaga sachems came to my tent, and proposed sending to-morrow some of their people to Cayuga, and wished some of ours to accompany them, in order to condole the loss of Ottawana's daughter, killed by one of their nation three days ago. I told them it was what I intended to do, and was to have proposed it to them, had they not been before hand. I told them I would prepare the belts and people against morning, and desired they would prepare theirs;-So ended.
"Thursday 6th.-The weather a little better, and the wind a little abated; at which I sent Captain Lotteridge, Lieutenant Hair, the Red Head; and a Cayuga Indian, to condole the loss of a woman killed at Cayuga, by one of their own people, and to bring all the warriors with them. They are to be here in six days. I have also sent to the several traders for their services, in order to settle the prices of goods, rum, skins, beavers, &v., so that the Indians may not be imposed upon. Tiyaquande, an Onondaga chief, set off this day with his family for his castle, and is to return with the Cayugas in six days, with all his people. I sent two belts of wampum, and a string by the Red Head to Cayuga -This afternoon I had a long discourse with Brigadier Gage, when I told him my sentiments very ingenuously, regarding the present expedition intended. He also spoke his mind freely, and said that General Amherst had missed the opportunity of favoring General Wolfe, and that unless General Amherst pushed for the whole country of Canada, which he thought now too late, an expedition this way would be of no service. Farther, that he thought this little army had done more than his, and if they could finish a fort here this season, supply this and Niagara with sufficient provisions, they would carry a very great point.
"Friday 7th.-A fine morning, but a little wind. Lieutenant Beckers arrived about 12 o'clock last night, and says the enemy abandoned Cadaraghqui the 29th of August; also the advanced post which they had on the island. He says he saw some boats with a few Indians crossing the lake, and one going to Swegatchie. The two French schooners lie near one of the islands about thirty miles from hence.--About 12 o'clock, the general called some officers who understood something of the seafaring business, and consulted with them how to take the French vessels. In consequence thereof, an order was given for an attempt of the kind to be made by two hundred volunteers from the several corps, under the command of Captain Parker. They are to endeavor to board them by surprise, by landing in the night on the island close by them. This afternoon, Captain Butler arrived here with twenty-four Mohawks, and Canajoharies, He left home on receipt of my letter, which he got the 16th ult. Was very ill treated at the Upper Oneida town by Ganaghquiesa, and in short by the whole three, but kindly received by Gawche and those at the lake, who promised that thirty of them would follow and join me at Oswego. This evening, the Senecas and Onondagas met at my tent, and spoke with two belts and a string of wampum, as follows: The first, was a black belt I gave them some time ago, to unite them and strengthen our alliance with them, which they now only produced to show me it was fresh in their memory, and to assure me that it had full effect with the Confederacy,-as they had since shown by their actions, and were firmly resolved to continue our friends. The second, was three strings of wampum complaining of the dearness of our goods, and earnestly desiring they might have fairer dealing; otherwise, it would alter the present good dispositions of all the Confederacy and their allies, who expected a more advantageous trade might be carried on with us, than with the French; which above all things would bring those nations over to us and attach the whole to his majesty's interest- Gave three strings. The last and third was a white belt, charging me with being too hasty and inconsiderate in thinking of another expedition before I had returned home, and considered what was next best to be done, and consulted with them, adding that if I now proceeded and should fail, the whole Confederacy would be overset. They, therefore, in the strongest manner, laid hold of me, and insisted on my staying at home. If I did not comply, all their nations would think ill of it, and give them great uneasiness.-I told them I would, on to-morrow answer as to the several matters they had now spoken about.--Very wet afternoon, prevented the scout going out. Rained very hard all night.
" Saturday 8th, A. very windy, wet morning; prevented the party's going after the French vessels, and the men's working until afternoon.
"Sunday 9th. Morning wet until eight o'clock; the party, under command of Captain Parker, embarked. Two hundred and fifty rank and file, and Silver Heels with them; also five Mohawks and Printop's son by themselves. About two o'clock, arrived a man, with some letters which were dropped by the post, and found by a Mohawk. In the evening, the post arrived, who was thought to have been scalped, with letters. I had one from Governor De Lancey, and others. No news from General Amherst, or Wolfe, nor Stanwix yet. - With the post arrived twenty-two Indians of Canajoharie and Oneida. Late, the general came to my tent, and showed me what a quantity of provisions the Indians consumed.
"Monday 10th, Very wet morning. All the men obliged to quit work until 9 o'clock. About 12; the two French vessels appeared in sight, and stood in for this place above two hours; then stood a little off, and was still in sight the whole evening, many conjectures about them. Some would have it that they were taken by our detachment, which was out in quest of them; but by their not coming in, it appeared they were yet the enemy's. The Seneca Indians came to know when I would answer to what they said last Friday. I told them I would to-morrow at farthest. By a Mohawk, this day wrote a letter to Nancy, another to Molly, and a third to Isaac Quaqenboss, &c., with a pass.
"Tuesday 11th, A fine morning, no wind, but a strong breeze; the vessels out of sight. I sent Clement for Abram and Thomas, Mohawks, to let them know the general's pleasure, and give them an answer to what they said last Friday. In this manner; viz :
"Brethren, of the Six Nations: It is now four days since you spoke to me on two points, to wit, concerning trade, and my going on another expedition. The reason of my not answering them sooner, was expecting to have heard what General Amherst's pleasure was concerning an expedition this way, so that I might speak to you with certainty. No such letter is as yet come, but daily expected. However, from the conversation I had yesterday, with the general here, I can answer you. With regard to trade I can say no more than what I have already told you, and you may depend upon it, the trifling trade now here, you, nor your people at home, are to judge by, as in war time every thing is dear-Gave them three strings of wampum.
"As to the other and last point, I am surprised at, as you, a few days ago, assured me that all your people, and the rest of the Confederacy, were determined to act heartily with us during the war, and now press me not to proceed with the army, and say I act rashly, in not first going home, and considering what farther steps are proper to be taken. It seems to me that you have very little confidence in Providence, and no regard for my honor; or character, or your own, when you desire me to stay inactive behind, I desire to know what part you, the Six Nations, will act, in case your request should be complied with,-then I will give you my answer. Returned their belt. The general desired me to stop the Cayugas and others from coming here (as he finds it impracticable to move from here on an expedition), but to keep a few Indians to scout about here to prevent scalping. He told me that he entirely gave up all thoughts of proceeding to La Galette, but desired I would keep it very private.
"Wednesday 12th, Fine morning, but cold, -wind northerly. Last night arrived a boat of Parker's detachment, with four prisoners of the ship's crew taken yesterday, as they went on shore to shoot, who, they say, vary in their accounts. One of them says that each of the vessels have forty men on board, partly militia, &c.; that one of them carries ten, the other eight guns, some of them twelve pounders; that they were to cruise eighteen days, then return to St. Paris; that they were then fifteen days out; that two hundred men who were at Cadaraghqui had lately abandoned it, and retired to Isle Galot; that on said island, Monsr. Levee (1) had about two thousand men entrenched, and had Mr. Mercier, an artillery officer, with him; that the vessels are to go to Point Paris or La Galette soon; that the third vessel is ready all to her rigging; and that their allowance of provision was one lb. of bread and one quarter of pork per diem. About 12 o'clock, an express arrived from Albany, but no letters from General Amherst. Some letters from his army of the 3d inst. say that he is building a large five-sided fort, and five redoubts, which, if all the men are employed, will be completed this season, and that the troops are not to go to winter quarters before finished. This evening, I sent the interpreter to call the Seneca sachems, in order to [hear] what they said.
"Some days ago, a party of the Canajoharies came on my call, and offered to go to La Galette on a scout, as soon as I pleased. I thanked them, and told them the sooner the better, and named the morrow for them to set off on this scout. At & o'clock, P. M., the sachems and young men of each nation assembled at my tent, when Abraham, chief of the Mohawks, delivered my answer to them; on which four of the chiefs withdrew to consider of what I had said, and what I desired to know of them concerning their desire I should not go any more against the enemy this campaign. They returned in about half an hour, and said that as they had agreed
1 Or Sevee; indistinct in manuscript.
to our going to, and destroying Niagara, they now hoped and expected, that I would comply with their request, adding a great deal about the loss my falling would be to all their nations; and farther, that although they have (agreeably to my repeated advice) spoke to, and used their interest with all the nations, as far as the Canatas, yet, they did not think the alliance so firm as to push things too far, lest they might alter their resolutions, and think you grasping at too much. "This is only our opinion and advice, concerning our allies; as for us, we are determined to stand by you agreeably to our engagements." They thanked me for the promises made them of a trade being established on h fair and regular plan, as soon as the war is over, and assured me, that would be the most effectual method we could take of attaching all the surrounding nations to his majesty's interest. I then told them, that I would take their request into consideration, and give them my answer as soon as ready-on which the meeting broke up.
"As the general told me two days ago, that he could not proceed to La Galette, or carry on any expedition, and desired I would stop the Cayugas and other Indians coming, I think to make them this answer; viz: that if they will engage to keep this post of Oswego, and all other our posts between this and the Mohawks' country, free from scalping by the Swegatchie or other Indians. I will agree to their request. This will please them, and lay them under obligations to us, at the same time that the general does not intend anything that way. The general sent a boat this day with some orders to Captain Parker.
"Thursday 18th, Fine weather and very warm. The two vessels set off for Niagara with provisions. About two o'clock a Swegatchie Indian from the Cayuga nation arrived here; was sent by the Onondagas, whom I sent to Swegatchie for intelligence, and left there with Captain Parker's party last night, and expects they will be here this evening.
"Friday 14th, Fine weather. The scout, I sent for intelligence to La Galette, arrived, and brought the following accounts and news, viz: that on his way thither, he was met by a canoe full of Swegatchie Indians, who were encamped at Point Paris with some French. They went with them to their camp, and told them they were sent by me and the Six Nations, with a message to them, which they would deliver to them in their castle, on which they decamped. The French also decamped on their leaving them, and burnt every thing at Point Paris, and retired to Isle Galot. On their arrival at their castle, they all assembled, and then my messenger told them, I sent them to acquaint them that our army would go that way, and if they would quit the French interest, and leave the settlement, they had an opportunity of saving themselves, and their families. If not, this would be the last warning they were to expect. They, for answer, desired the messengers to return me their hearty thanks for the advice I gave them, and the care I showed for their safety, and assured me in the most solemn manner, that they would not only quit the French interest, but on our approach meet and join us, and show us the best way to attack the enemy on the island, who were not above six hundred. They desired we would make all the haste possible, lest on General Wolfe's being repulsed, the enemy might send up large reinforcements to La Galette, and by that means baffle our design, and charge them with treachery. They told me the enemy carried away most of their cannon from Isle Galot, on one Mr. Bearn's intelligence of our army being intended to go down the river St. Lawrence. I immediately communicated this intelligence to Brigadier General Gage. About 5 o'clock, I sent a scout of thirty-two Canajoharies, Oneidas, and Onondagas, under the command of Captain Fonda, to La Galette. With him -went Lieutenant Francis, Captain Tiebout, Ensign Roberts, and three battoe men of my own, with orders to bring prisoners for intelligence, and make all the useful observations they possibly could. They set off in four whale boats.
" Saturday 15th.-Rain in the morning; but a northerly wind cleared up the weather, so that the works were carried on very briskly. This morning, Bunt, chief of Onondaga, with his three sons, and others came to acquaint me that they were resolved; to go on a scout to La Galette, and set off the day after to-morrow. Silver Heels, Daniel, and others, told me they were resolved, also, to go as soon as Captain Lottridge returned from Cayuga. About 10 o'clock, the general called me, Colonels Haldimand, Massey, and Graham to his hut, when he asked our opinions what number of men we thought sufficient to carry on the fort, so as to leave it this campaign on barbette, which, he said, was as far as the engineer expected to get it, and what number of men for the guards of the camp, woods, &C., and also, what number of men we thought necessary for incidental duty or fatigue. We were of opinion that 1100 men would be sufficient to work at the fort, 200 for guards in our absence, 100 for incidental fatigues or other duties, and an addition of 42 men to Captain Schuyler'a company of battoe-men. Then the general cast the whole up, and it appeared that there were about 1000 rank and file to go on an expedition, besides Indians, the number then unknown, as they were constantly coming in from different quarters, and the Cayugas all expected the next day. I told the general that our going and destroying La Galette, would be the means of drawing all the Swegatchie Indians away from the French [interest], and that if we did not attempt it now, it might be the means of riveting them more firmly in it. Besides that, our destroying La Galette, might make us masters of the French vessels, which then would be out of the way of any relief. All he said was, that it all depended on General Wolfe. After various opinions, our meeting ended in nothing, no resolution having been taken. A little after, the general told me I had better stop the Cayugas then on their way, and send those here home, by telling them the season was too far advanced, and could not complete this post if we went on any expedition, &c. About 1 o'clock, Captain Lotteridge arrived from Cayuga, with Lieutenant Hair, Red Head, and one Seneca, and reported that the Cayugas had received them kindly, and would all be here to-morrow, and desired them to acquaint me, that in case I should be gone on my march, they would overtake me before we could come to action, in which they were all resolved to act the best part they could. A number of Onondagas arrived just now, who came and told me they were come to join us, and that the rest of their nation were all coming with the same intent, and expected we were ready to proceed; if not, they would go by themselves against the enemy. The general told me this evening he had a letter by express from General Amherst, but no news, nor nothing of his proceeding to Mt. Real, or elsewhere, as I can hear.
"Sunday 16th.-Fine fall weather, windy and dry. An express arrived here from General Amherst, with letters to Brigadier Gage, enclosing him an extract of General Stanwix's letter to him, dated at Fort Bedford, the 16th of August, wherein he tells him that on the taking of Niagara, the French abandoned their posts at Winango, [Venango] River Boeuf, and Presque Isle; and on account of the lowness of the waters, were obliged to burn all their bateaus, &c. This, also, prevented the General sending Major Tulican with 400 Royal Americans to relieve the garrison of Niagara, so that now he waits to hear from Niagara what time they can send boats to Presque Isle for the transportation of that body of troops. General Amherst recommends to Stanwix, the sending Colonel Boquet to command at Niagara, if convenient. The general showed me the letter he wrote the 10th inst. to General Amherst, wherein he tells him that it is impossible to do more with the few troops he has, than to make this post tenantable by the latter end of October, and bring up provisions for it and Niagara. As the building there will not be finished until very late, having so few hands, it will be very difficult to get the garrison from them this season. On the whole, the general seemed much perplexed, and said he wished he had not written to Stanwix about the garrison. He also shewed me two letters he had written Bradstreet, in one of which he tells him that unless provisions are sent up with more speed, and greater quantities than hitherto, he would be obliged to abandon Niagara, and these works. Shortly after, the general called me, Colonels Haldimand, Massey, and Graham, to his hut, to learn what intelligence Mr. De Quagne (1) learned from the French prisoners, by which the general would have it, that the enemy were very strongly entrenched there, with numbers superior to ours. After all, he desired the opinion of the gentlemen present, not as a council of war, but to enlighten him, as he vowed he was at a loss what step to take. The first that spoke his opinion was Colonel Massey, who said he thought it would be imprudent to go with any thing but a flying light body of troops-- about 500--in order to destroy La Galette. I gave the general my opinion as thus-that I was apprehensive [i. e. was of opinion] a body of six hundred men might carry La Galette, and the Indians from thence, which would be a thing of great consequence; that if the enemy were weak at Isle Gallot, they might probably on our destroying La Galette, abandon it, if they did not learn our small number, which should be carefully concealed; that the vessels might also fall, by our succeeding at La Galette. If we found the enemy too powerful, I thought we could retreat with care, and, good conduct; that if we did not attempt anything that way, it might probably fix the Swegatchies firmer in the French interest, and be the means of establishing a stronger post there than ever. The other two gentlemen were very reserved, Haldimand in particular. We broke up without any resolution. The general followed me, and desired I would turn the thing in my mind seriously, and let him know my thoughts further about it. I, on this, spoke with Colonel
1 M. deCouagne, French interpreter; at this time, stationed at Niagara.
Massey upon the subject, who said he would gladly go in case I went. I told him I was resolved to go if allowed, and would go directly and throw myself in the general's way, expecting he will ask me my opinion. I did so several times, even to the tent door, with his aid-de-camp and brigadier major, but he avoided talking with me on the subject.
"Monday 17th.- Very wet weather; no works going on. I intend this day to ask the general for 600 men, to go to La Galette, as the Indians here and there, both, are desirous of it. If he will not agree to it, I shall then desire liberty to go home. Thomas, Aaron and his family left this yesterday, and took one of the prisoners, taken from the vessel with them. I wrote to Nancy by them, and to my bowmaster.1 This day, an express arrived from General Amherst, with letters to General Gage, by which, I heard Mr. Gage say, he did not expect anything to be done this way. Accounts from General Wolfe not very favorable. I received a letter from Mr. Amherst, dated 11th inst., another from Mr. Croghan with all his conferences. His letter is dated 16th of August; had not yet received my letter, and three Mohawk Indians. Very severe weather all day.
"Tuesday 18th.-Cold, raw, windy morning, after the severest night I ever remember for wind and rain. I catched a fellow in my tent drunk, with his firelock. He crept in from the weather. Sent him away to the guard, not as a prisoner, but relieved. I this day wrote to General Amherst pr. return of the express. The Indians very impatient to know whether we are to proceed or not. I have put them off from time to time, in hopes there would be somethingfor them and us to do.
"Wednesday 19th.-A fine fall morning; wind at S. E. The Bunt's three sons, with seven Onondagas more, came and were. fitted out to go scalping to La Galette. I ordered a whale boat for them, and everything necessary. Gave a silver gorget to the Bunt's grandson, who was appointed their leader. His name is Punch.-Soon after Missarung -with six more came and were clothed, and joined the other ten Onondagas. In the evening, Karraghiagygo, with eight more, came to acquaint me, they were resolved to go a scalping by themselves the next day. In the evening, the wind turned to N. W., and rained very hard, and blew a severe storm. Rained all night.
1 A Bouwmeester is a surveyor, in Nederduitsche; the term has sometimes been aplied to the overseer of a farm.
"Thursday morning 20th.-A cold N. E. wind; blew so hard that the parties could not set off, the lake being too rough. I have observed, since I gave my opinion for going to La Galette, that the general is not free or friendly with me, but rather shuns me. This day I answered the Ganughsharagey Indians, and told them, on my return, I would either give them some provisions or money, for their families, which they were very thankful for.
"Friday 21st.--A fine morning, but cold. I sent Printop over the river to hurry out the several parties, who are going a scalping. About 10 o'clock, I fitted out Karraghiagygo's party, consisting of nine men, with everything necessary. The sachems of the Senecas, &c., came to know what we were resolved to do, whether to proceed or not. I told them I would answer them in the evening. The Bunt being drunk prevented meeting them. This afternoon, the two parties set off for La Galette with Captain Lotteridge, and the other with Lieutenant Hair. They are to be back in ten days if the weather permits. No news from any quarter, the express expected.
"Saturday 22d.-A fine morning. I took a whale boat, and Colonel Massey another, and went six or eight miles along the lake side a shooting-little or no game. We went up a creek which is called Red Head's creek. About two miles, very navigable and deep, but no farther. Good fishing in said creek, and beaver also. Nothing extraordinary happened in my absence-the sick all ordered down.
"Sunday 23d,- A dark morning; wind N. W., no account of our vessels yet from Niagara. We begin to fear they are lost. This day, to the amount of one hundred and fifty sick were sent downwards. Last night, some more Onondagas joined us, and others to come this day from the Falls. About 5 o'clock, several Onondagas came to my tent, and told me they were come according to promise, and are ready to go with us upon service; that their chieftain, named Teiyoquande, notwithstanding he had lost one of his children, whom he had just buried, came with them, and was also resolved to join the army with his party, as he found the Six Nations were now heartily engaged in our cause. I bid them welcome; told them I was sorry for my friend's loss, and would condole it to-morrow. They farther say, that they were told at the falls, by our people and the Indians that there was no expedition going forward, and that they might turn back. They answered, that as they were so far on their journey, and had promised faithfully to return hither, they would come and know from me the certainty, which they now desired I would acquaint them with. I told them I would advise them on the whole, the next day-so parted, after drinking with them, and giving them pipes, tobacco, &c. I also gave Bunt clothes for himself and family-thus ended.
"Monday 24th. A very fine morning; quite calm. Our two vessels returned from Niagara, with all the Yorkers that were left there. They say, Captain Lee with fourteen men went to Presque Isle, in order to learn where Mr. Stanwix was; the Missiasagays, of whom there came about one hundred and fifty, to Niagara, brought and delivered up two of our men, taken at Belle Famille in the battle of the twenty-fourth. About 10 o'clock, Weaver, the post, arrived here with but few letters. The news by him was, that General Wolfe was still at Quebec, destroying all the country about. The sachems and warriors of the Onondaga and Seneca nations came to my tent, in order to know what was to be done, or whether the army was to proceed or not. On which I asked General Gage what answer I should make to them. He desired I would tell them, that as soon as the scouting party returned, and he could learn from the prisoners they might bring in, what news at La Galette, or that way, he would enable me to answer them. This I told them, and so parted, after condoling with Tyioquande.
"Tuesday 25th.-Very fine, warm weather. The Seneca and Onondaga sachems came to my tent, when the former told me, they had lost three of their people since they came here, and many more now very sick, so that they wanted to return home; besides they did not see any sign of going forward. I sent a black string of wampum by them, strongly recommending to their nation, in whose country Niagara was, to keep a good look out, and take care that none of that garrison or traders be molested; otherwise the general will be obliged to take proper measures to punish such a people.
"Our two vessels to sail this afternoon for Niagara with provisions. Mr. Vanscaack, and other traders are also going there this day with my pass. Cobus Van Eps asked liberty to go to trade at Irondequat with the Chenussio Indians. As it is near to their settlement, I agreed to it. Besides, it will be some plea for us to claim some right of building there and trading.
" Wednesday 26th.--A fine morning; wind at south east. I received a letter from Dominie Hardwick. Mr. Carty arrived here with a number of sheep for the army; lost several by the way. Nothing new this day.
"Thursday 27th.-a little rain this morning; cleared up with a N. W. wind. Daniel, Belt, Silver Heels, &c., left this on their way home. Gave them some money, orders &c., and so discharged them. This day nothing new.
"Friday 28th.-Morning clear, and wind at N. W.; blew hard all the night. This day wrote two letters for London; the one to Alderman Baker; the other to Messrs. Champion and Hayley. About 9 o'clock P. M., Captain Fonda, Mr. Roberts, and twenty of the party, who left this the 14th, returned for the want of provisions, and a good guide. The rest of them are gone on to La Galette, in number, ten. They also saw the two parties pass, who left this last week.
"Saturday 29th.-A fine morning. Mr. Carty called upon me, and took my two letters for London, and one for Mr. Van Der Huyden. I sent Captain Butler to make a discovery, if he could, of a meadow which is two miles. Returned and found it would not do is grown over with brush. Dined on a Michaelmas goose with General Gage. The Indians, who came from near Cadaraghqui, say they heard several cannon fired, they think, on board the vessels, about the 25th of this month.
"Sunday 30th.-Very fine morning. Work goes on very well, and the fort in great forwardness. At 12 o'clock, a boat with Onondagas, some whites, and two French Indians, arrived here. They were Bunt's son's party with Lieutenant Hair, who; meeting a French party coming this way a scalping, turned them back, and brought two Skanendaddy Indians to me from said party. On their arrival here at my tent, they told me all the news they heard in Canada, which I immediately acquainted General Gage of and is as follows, viz: That General Wolfe is yet before Quebec; that eleven hundred Ottawas arrived at their, and the Coghnawagey castles before they left home, and were plundering the country; that the priest of La Gallete told them there were twenty-five hundred men on Isle Galot, fortifying themselves as fast as they could; that about seven days ago, a scout of seven men from General Amherst to Gage, was taken at La Gallete with their letters ; that there is no news from General Amherst, than that he is at Crown Point building vessels and a fort; that these two Indians were sent by the rest of the party to know whether the news which the Swegatohie Indians told them they received from me was, true; if it was, they assured me that all their, as well as the Coghnawaga castles, would pay all due regard to what I said to them, and never more assist the French, &c.
"1st October, Monday.-Fine weather. Colonel Massey and sundry other gentlemen and myself, went in two boats to Red Head's creek to hunt and fish, but had no luck, so returned. This day an express arrived with letters for the general and others; also newspapers, but little or no news in them.
"October 2d, Tuesday.-Fine morning; work goes on very well. Gave one McMaster, a pass to trade at Niagara with four battoe loads. The two Indians, who came from Canada, are gone this day to Onondaga to see some of their friends there, and promise to return in four or five days here, and carry a message from me to their nations. The Bunt's daughter-in-law was buried this day, after which he came and dined with me, and assured me he would not move until I did, be it which way it would. At the same time, he told me he would be glad to know what was to be done by us, whether to advance or not, that he might manage affairs accordingly with his nation. I told him that as soon as the general let me know his resolution, I would acquaint him. Then parted for this time.
"The general told me this afternoon, that General Amherst wrote him the 21st ult. from Crown Point, but nothing of his moving on, nor of ours here, but expects Mr. Gage with his troops will finish this fort, and complete Fort Stanwix.
"Wednesday, 3d.-Fine pleasant morning for work. The general read part of General Amherst's letter to him of the 21st ult. From Crown Point, wherein he expresses his concern at Mr. Gage's not taking post at La Gallete, which is so advantageous a pass, and nothing to hinder it, as all their force is employed below. He then says, that he expects, as he is determined not to take post at La Galette, that he will complete Fort Stanwix and this post, as well as cut open a communication between this and the Mohawk river; that he has written the several governments to continue their troops the month of November, which he does not doubt they will come into; and a great deal more concerning the garrisons, provisions, and artillery-six hundred men to be here. He seemed greatly concerned on the whole, and was much surprised at the general's manner of writing. In the evening, he desired I would take up my quarters in one of the barracks, and then walked away. The boat returned from Fish Creek, and brought back the provisions intended for the party on the scout so long ; but on seeing no signs of them the sergeant returned.
"Thursday 4th.-Began to rain about 7 of the clock. The works quitted thereby. This day, invited the General, Colonel Haldimand, Colonel Massey, Colonel Graham, Hancy, Fenton and Benton to dine with me. In the afternoon, I asked the general how long he thought it necessary to keep me here. He answered no longer than [until] the scouts returned, who are gone to La Gallete, or that it was agreeable to me. This day, received a letter from the general at Crown Point, concerning a party of Mohawks who were detained there by him until he heard their character from me. I answered said letter the same day.
"Friday 6th.-A fine morning; no wind. All hands at work. A party of Royal Americans sent to Fort Stanwix in order to enable the garrison to make roads and carry on the works there. Mr. Rivet sent to view the three posts between this and Fort Stanwix. The three men who were to be shot are pardoned. This day ten Cayugas arrived here from their country. On their coming to my tent, I condoled with three strings of wampum their losses, and then desired they would let me know what news in their country. They told me that their people were very sickly, and that several had died of the bloody-flux. They told me that their sachems were very negligent, and did not pay that regard or attention to business, which they, the young men, expected they would, and at this time, thought they should. Wherefore they came of themselves to see me at Oswego, and to know what was to be done further that they expected to have another message sent to them in case we wanted them, and that they would all have come to us. They further added, that on the sachems finding that they were coming this way, they sent a string of wampum by them, desiring to acquaint me they were in great distress for want of smiths in their country to mend their arms, &c,, and begged I would send them such. I told them I would speak to them the next day-gave them pipes, tobacco, rum, &c., and parted for that time. This day Bassy Dunbar and Lieutenant Pionier of the Royal Americans, fought a duel, in which the former received a shot in the breast through the lungs, which is thought will be mortal.
"Saturday 6th.-A dark, hazy morning and warm, after a good deal of rain in the night. All hands at work as usual. This day the first range of officers' barracks is to be raised.
"Sunday 7th.-Fine, warm day. The general and I took a ride to the half way creek with a guard of the light infantry. Dined with him. Captain Fonda returned from the next Oneida station, from whence to the ford at the Three Rivers, he marked out a road with three Onondaga Indians whom I employed for that purpose, and says it will not be above ten miles distance. The general much pleased at their finding so good and short a road.
"Monday 8th.-Excessive hot weather. The sloops or schooners arrived from Niagara and brought five prisoners of ours from thence, who were taken in Major Grant's affair on the 24th July at Belle Famille. One of them is son of Mr. Guist, who gives a very good account of the Detroit settlement, &c. He says they expected to be drove from there by me, after Niagara was taken, and believes had we attempted it, they would all fly before us. Colonel Cole, of Rhode Island, arrived here yesterday, and brought me a letter from Mr. Hunter.
This day Captain Lotteridge and his party of Onondagas and Oneidas returned from their scout, and brought in three prisoners and two scalps, which they took between, La Gallete and the island they are fortifying. They bring us the agreeable news of Quebec's having surrendered to the English army the 18th of September. Mt. Calm [Montcalm] killed-shot through the breast. General Wolfe killed, and the next in command, Mr. Ramsay, with six hundred in the citadel, capitulated. The army retired to a river about fifteen leagues above Quebec. Mr. Levy, going to Quebec with fifteen hundred men, was defeated by our people under the command of Murray. The general proposes sending an express with the news to General Amherst at daybreak to-morrow.
"Tuesday 9fh.-Fine morning; wind at S. E. I wait for the return of four Mohawks yet out about La Gallete. When they return I propose to go home, the general having told me there was nothing more to do at present or for this campaign. The party of Onondagas, who returned yesterday with the prisoners and scalps, came to my tent with the rest here, and divided their prisoners and scalps. I gave one prisoner in the room of Bunt's daughter-in-law, named Kahiuenta, with three thousand wampum. I this day gave De Couagne instructions going to Niagara. The two vessels sailed for that place this afternoon, with provisions, artillery, rigging, sheep, &c. In the afternoon, about thirty Senecas, with their chief man, the Drunkard, arrived here. Mr. Guist came to know if I had any commands down the country, as he was to set off for his regiment next morning with our battoes. Gave him some, and parted. Mr. Edward Cole, of Rhode Island, applied to me for advice and liberty to trade at Niagara.
"Wednesday 10th.-Fine "'weather wind at S. E.; fair for the two vessels. The Onondagas came to know what resolution the general had come to, on examining the prisoners brought in by the Indians, agreeably to his promise made them several days ago. I told them I would acquaint them this day with the generals resolution, concerning what they wanted to know. I spoke with the general about it, who desired I would acquaint them the season of the year was so far advanced, and so much work to be done here to finish the fort, that he did not intend to proceed further this campaign, and that they might return to their respective habitations and country. He desired I would return them thanks for their many services this campaign, and hoped they would be ready the next to join when called upon. This afternoon the Seneca sachems and warriors came to my tent, when I condoled their losses, and then talked to them upon business, and told them I would, the next day, meet all the nations here assembled, and settle all matters with them.
"Thursday 11th.-Cloudy weather; wind at south. This day the post arrived with letters from the army, and papers of the 1st inst., with an account of Prince Ferdinand's beating the French army. This day I had a general meeting with all the Indians here, viz; Onondagas, Senecas, Cayugas, Oneidas and Mohawks, when I spoke to them in the general's name; returned them thanks for their services and attendance here this time past; told them that as the general only proposed finishing the fort in hand here, he did not intend to move further, so discharged them. I then spoke to them all in presence of three Indians sent by the Swegatchie and Coghnauagey Indians to me on business. The first belt was to acquaint them of the general's not going forward this year, and that I had complied with their request, and I saw they did not choose I should go that way; and I told them that I expected they would always comply with my desire, whenever I might apply to them. Gave a Belt. Secondly : I desired they would all exert and interest themselves in the protection of Niagara, Oswego, and all the posts we have in their country. I also told them that if the Swegatehie Indians and others should attempt to molest any of said posts, or touch any of his majesty's subjects, for the future, I never would speak a word in their favor, but advise the general to cut them to pieces; so hoped they, as their friends, would be careful to prevent them plunging themselves into danger and destruction ; that as these forts were for the protection of their country, as well as of that of the trade intended to be carried on with them and their allies, it behooved them to do all they could for the safety of them-A Belt. Thirdly: A large black belt sent to the Swegatchie, Coghnawagey and Skanendaddy Indians, letting them know that I have hitherto befriended them; that they have it in their power now, by quitting the French, to become once more a happy people, but if, contrary to the many and solemn professions made to me and the Six Nations, and the assurances they lately, by belts and strings of wampum, gave me of their fixed resolutions to abandon the French, they should act a different part, they must then expect no quarter from us-Gave a large Belt of Black Wampum mixed. I then told the Indians I proposed leaving this place in a few days, and that they might expect to hear from me as soon as there was anything of consequence to communicate. They made answer that as it was now late, they would to-morrow say something in answer.
"Friday 12th.-Rained all the night. Morning wet, so that the works could not be carried on. Wrote to General Amherst this morning per servant, as the post was sent off unknown to me. At 8 o'clock, P, M., the Onondaga, Seneca and Cayuga chiefs and warriors came to my tent, when their speaker told me they had all attentively heard what I yesterday said and recommended to their nation; and they assured me, by a belt of white wampum, that they would keep a careful eye over Niagara, Oswego, and all our other posts in their country. At the same time, they said, it would be hard to blame them should any little damage be done at any of the places mentioned, as the French, as well as we, are always persuading parties to fretch prisoners for intelligence. However, we might depend upon their using all their influence with their relations, the Swegatchies, Coghnauwageys, and Skanendaddys to quit the French entirely, if not, they must suffer for it. Here Gave the Belt.
"Next, the speaker said, it was the desire of the Senecas, Cayugas, and Onondagas that I would send a smith and trader to each of their castles; also begged there might be a large store of goods, &c., at Niagara, Oswego and Port Stanwix, which, they said, would please the foreign nations more than anything. They then desired to know when I would leave this, that they might tie up their packs, take their hatchets in their hands, and escort me. I told them in two days, if the party, of Mohawks returned in that time. I again strongly recommended the care of all the posts in this part of the country to them; promised to send them smiths, &c., and so parted.
"Lieutenant Bassey Dunbar died this evening of his wound, and died in peace with mankind, he told Parson Ogilvie. This day I gave orders for packing up, and preparing for a march homewards, as there is nothing to do here.
"Saturday Morning 13th.-Wet; wind at N. W.; a fresh gale. This morning I began to hack up my little things and prepare to set off to-morrow, if God pleases. I waited on the general for leave to go home, which he readily complied with. Also gave Mr. Ogilvie liberty to go with me, and desired I Would let him know what I wanted, that he might order Major Christie to get everything ready for me. This night I supped with Colonel Massey, when all the company were very merry. The Onondagas and Senecas spoke for powder and presents, with wampum, which I gave them.
"Sunday 14th.-Windy; dry weather; the wind at N. E. I was up early, and desired all hands to strike our tents, and load the battoes." 1
1 It is, perhaps, unnecessary to remind the reader, that this diary -was written hastily-in the confusion of camp life-and was, moreover, designed for no eye but the writer's; hence the carelessness of the style. The diary is written in a small leather covered book, very similar to our modern pocket diaries-exactly suited to the end for which it was designed, to be carried in the pocket, and taken out whenever the writer wished to jot down a thought. These remarks apply equally to Sir William's journal while on his journey to Detroit,-both being written in the same book..
to James F. Morrison for loaning his book for the purpose of putting it on
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