Three Rivers
Hudson~Mohawk~Schoharie
History From America's Most Famous Valleys

The Life and Times of
Sir William Johnson, Bart.,
by William L. Stone
Vol. I
Albany: J. Munsell, 78 State Street, 1865.

Thanks to James F. Morrison for loaning his book for the purpose of putting it on the internet.

Contents

Preface

CHAPTER I.
1534-1741.

Plan of the present work, 9-Success of the French in winning the confidence of the Indians; one exception to this success, 10-Inconsiderable attention paid to the Five Nations by the first three English governors, 11-Enterprise of the Jesuit missionaries during the peace of 1667, 12- Efforts of Governor Dongan to thwart the influence of the French, 14- Convention of the Five Nations at Albany in 1684, 15-Success of Dongan's efforts, 16-Neglect of Indian affairs in the colony of New York during the Leislerian administration, 17-Count Frontenac vainly attempts to detach the Confederates from the English interest, 18- Defeat of De Calliers, Governor of Montreal, by Major Peter Schuyler, 19-Colonel Fletcher succeeds Ingoldsby as governor. Ingoldsby holds a council with the Five Nations at Albany, in 1692, 20-Governor Fletcher takes Major Schuyler into his councils, 20-Count Prontenac captures two of the Mohawk castles, 21-Schuyler takes the field in pursuit. The purpose of the Oneidas to make peace with the French frustrated by Governor Fletcher, who calls a council of the Confederacy in July, 1693, 22-Count Frontenae makes another effort to subjugate the Five Nations, 28-The Earl of Bellamont succeeds Governor Fletcher, 24-Colonel Schuyler visits England in 1710 with five Iroquois chiefs, 26-Senecas prevented from turning their arms against the English by the peace of Utrecht in 1713, 27-The Confederates meditate hostilities against the Catawbas and Cherokees. Numerical strength of the Tuscaroras, 28- They are taken into the Iroquois Confederacy, which is henceforth known as the Six Nations, 29-General Hunter goes back to England, leaving Schuyler at the head of the colonial administration. The latter holds a treaty with the Six Nations, 29-Failure to expel the Jesuit emissary, Joncaire, from the Senecas, 30-William Burnet takes the reins of government in 1720. Endeavors to break up the Indian trade between Albany and Montreal, 30-Passage of an act for that purpose, 31-Trading post established at Oswego in 1722. Beneficial effects of Burnet's policy, 31 -The establishment of an English post at Oswego, a source of great displeasure to the French. Mr. Burnet meets the Confederates at Albany in 1727, 32-Mr. Montgomery succeeds Mr. Burnet in the government, 38-Revival of the trade between Albany and Montreal, 34-Death of Montgomery. Rip Van Dam succeeds him for a short period, 34-Stormy administration of Governor Cosby, 35-The Six Nations again resume hostilities against the southern Indians. The latter are defeated with the loss of twelve hundred braves, 35-George Clarke, after a brief struggle with Rip Van Dam, is commissioned lieutenant governor, 36- Recommends to the assembly various important measures, 37-The election between Adolphe Philipse and Gerrit Van Horn contested., Eloquence of Mr. Smith on the occasion, 89-Increased political excitement during the years 1738-l739. Reasons for it, 41-Demand for a permanent supply bill. Dissolution of the assembly. Temper of the new one, 43-The governor yields to the assembly, 44-Mr. Clarke complains bitterly of the continued encroachments on the crown by the people, 45- The assembly decline making an appropriation for rebuilding the chapel among the Mohawks, 47-War declared against Spain, 47-Grand council of the Confederacy held at Albany by the lieutenant governor in 1741. Satisfactory result, 51-The famous negro plot. Incidents connected with it. 52.

CHAPTER II.
1742-1744.
Prominence of SIR WILLIAM JOHNSON in the colonial annals of the United States. His life and character hitherto but imperfectly understood, 56- Family and descent. His uncle Sir Peter Warren, 57-Marriage of Sir Peter Warren. Birth of Sir William Johnson, 59-Arrival in America, 60-Takes charge of his uncle's estate in the Mohawk valley, and keeps a country store. Means of both uncle and nephew, at this time, small, 60-Receives advice from his uncle, 61-His style of living. Description of his person. His success in winning the confidence and affection of the Mohawks, 64-Proposes to erect a saw mill. His education, 66- Difficulty in fixing the exact date of his marriage. Character of his wife, Catharine Weisenberg, 66-the Six Nations in 1742, send a large delegation to Philadelphia. Its object, 66-Proceedings of the council, 68- Tact of Lieutenant Governor Thomas, 69-Interesting historical incident during the sitting of the council, 71-Complaint made by the Indians against the governor and people of Maryland. Misunderstood on the part of Virginia, 73-A party of Indians invade the county of Augusta, and kill several Virginians. Correspondence between lieutenant Governor Gooch and Lieutenant Governor Clarke in relation to it, 73- Jacobus Bleecker sent to Onondaga by the Indian commissioners, 74- Another embassy sent to Onondaga. Result of these missions, 76- Arrival of Admiral George Clinton as the successor of Lieutenant Governor Clarke, 77-Opening speech of the new governor probably moulded by Chief Justice De Lancey. Tone of the speech, 79-Sketch of Chief Justice De Lanoey, 79-De Lancey, in behalf of the assembly, draws up an humble address, 80-The governor signs all the bills presented to him, 81-Removal of Mr. Johnson from the south to the north side of the Mohawk. Opens a correspondence on his own account with the opulent house of Sir William Baker & Co., London. Grows in the public estimation, 81-Lays the foundation of his future prosperity on the basis of honorable dealing, 82-The government of New York a.uthorized to issue letters of marque against Spain, 82-Activity of Captain Warren at sea. Captures a privateer and is promoted, 86-Clinton communicates to the assembly advices of the intended invasion of England by "a Popish Pretender," 87-Holds a conference with the Six Nations at Albany, 88. -Expresses apprehensions for the post at Oswego, 89-Lays before his council a communication from the commandant at Oswego, in relation to the designs of the French against that post, 90-Grand Indian council at Lancaster in 1744. Its proceedings in detail, 91-109.

CHAPTER III.
1744-1746.
Repose of the colonies under the administration of Sir Robert Walpole, broken by the declaration of war against France. Attempts of the French upon Acadia and Placentia, 110-Declaration of hostilities announced to the general assembly by Clinton. Strong measures urged for the protection of the colony and city of New York, 111. The build ing of a strong fort in the vicinity of Crown Point recommended, 112- Cowardly retreat of the English traders from Oswego. The house pledge the ways and means for putting the colony in aposture of defence, 118-Thee Caughnawagas take up the hatchet against the English, 114-Special, allowances voted for the defence of Albany and Schenectady, 115-The French again active in their endeavors to win the Six Nations from the English, 116-Mr. Bleecker is despatched into the Seneca country. Returns and reports favorably. Another report from a French deserter, 117-Arrest and discharge of David Leisberger and Christian Frederick Post. Governor Shirley proposes the capture of Louisburg, 118- Description of the harbor and defences of Louisburg, 119.-Shirley communicates his plan to the ministry, 120-Circular letters sent to the several colonial governors, 122-Lukewarm reception of the scheme by New York. its cause, 122-Conduct of the assembly, and its dissolution by the governor, 122-128-Preparations of Shirley for the capture of Cape Breton, 129-The command of the land forces given to Colonel William Pepperell, 130-Circumstances which favored the undertaking, 132-Unfitness of Shirley to direct the conduct of the expedition, 133-Commodore Warren assumes command of the naval forces, 136-Progress of the seige, 138-Success of Warren in cruizing off the harbor, 142- Surrender of the city, 146-The Mermaid despatched to England with. the tidings. Effect of the conquest in Europe and America, 148-Honorable rewards to the master spirits of the expedition, 149-Unwillingness of the parent government to reimburse the colonies for their expenses, 150-Efforts to detract from the just fame of the Provincials defeated, 151-Discussion respecting the relative merits of Pepperell and Warren, 156.

CHAPTER IV.
1746-1746.
David Jones of Queens county, elected speaker of the new assembly, 157- Clinton urges upon the assembly the importance of reinforcing the forces of Pepperell and Warren. Both branches of the assembly respond cordially. Indian relations of the colony again critical, 158-Dissatisfaction among the Six Nations. Examination of John Henry Lydius, 159-Animosity between the Mohawks and the people of Albany. - - Conrad Weiser sent on a friendly tour among the Six Nations, 160- Reception of Weiser. Accusations against the Albanians by the Confederates, 161-The commissioners of Indian affairs announce the approach of scalping parties of Canadian Indians. Barbarities of these Indians on the frontier of New Hampshire, 162-Attention of the assembly called to these outrages. A general council with the Indians recommended, 163-Proceedings of the council. Speech of Hendrik, 164- Suspicions of the Massachusetts commissioners, 170-Clinton communicates the result of the council to the assembly in a special message, 172-Burning by the French and Indians of the settlement at Saratoga, 178-Destruction of the village of Hoosick, 174-Governor Clinton reproves the assembly for its indifference, 175-Communication from Colonel Philip Schuyler laid before the privy council. Dissatisfaction at the removal of the local militia from the city, 176-Prospect of a gloomy winter. Exciting rumors, 177-Clinton asks for an appropriation to build a stone fort at the great carrying place between Hudson River and Lake Champlain, 178-Doubtful position assumed by the Confederacy, 179-- The importance of an alliance with New England for mutual protection appreciated. Commissioners appointed for that purpose, 180-The question of parliamentary law and prerogative before the council and assembly, 181-The assembly driven from the city by the small pox, 182-Discussion of the revenue bill by the council and assembly, 183-The victory with the representatives of the people, 185-Resolution adopted directing the erection of six strong block-houses. Appropriations for other important objects, 186-Clinton again asks for reinforcements for Pepperell and Warren, and is refused. Reluctance of the assembly to cooperate with the New England colonies not easily explained, 186.

CHAPTER V.
1746.
Commencement of the brilliant public career of Sir WILLIAM JOHNSON. He erects a valuable flouring mill. Builds an elegant stone mansion, and calls it Mount Johnson. Becomes known to Governor Clinton, probably through the influence of Chief Justice De Lancey, 187-His commercial affairs widely extended. Is engaged in shipping furs to London. Is commissioned a justice of the peace for Albany county. Begins to participate largely in the political concerns of the colony, as shown by the return of Mr. Holland to the assembly from Schenectady, 188-The exact date of his wife's decease not known. Birth of a sou- John Johnson, and of two daughters-Mary and Nancy. Is rapidly gaining an ascendency over the Iroquois Confederacy. Manuscript letter from James Wilson to Johnson, 189-Comprehensive views of Shirley, 190-Communicates them to the government of New York, 191-The duke of Newcastle's letter laid before the council, 192-Joyful reception of these communications by the legislature and people, 193-Inaction of the parent government, 196-Expedition against Quebec abandoned, 198-Activity of the French, 199-Alarm of the North American seaports on the approach of D'Anville's fleet, 200-Quarrel of Chief Justice De Lancey with Governor Clinton. Causes which led to it, 201-Governor Clinton arrives in Albany to meet the Six Nations. Finds very few Indians in attendance, 202-Burners of a French expedition against Schenectady communicated to Clinton by Johnson. 204-Growing disaffection of the Six Nations, 206-The Jesuits succeed in gaining over some of the chiefs, 206-Mr. Clinton avails himself, in the Indian department, of the services of Mr. Johnson. Qualifications of the latter for this branch of the public service, 207-Mr. Johnson exerts himself successfully in winning back the friendship of the Confederates. Prevails upon them to attend the council, 208-Is adopted by the Mohawks, and invested with the rank of a war chief, 209-Receives from the Mohawks an Indian name. Enters Albany at the head of a party of Mohawks, dressed and painted as a warrior, 210-Dr. Colden opens the council with a speech, 211-Reply of the Indians, 213-An alliance defensive and offensive formed with the Iroquois Confederacy, 216- Astonishing ignorance of Mr. Clinton in relation to affairs in New England, 217-Efforts of the Canadian governor to neutralize Mr. Clinton's proceedings, 218-The Caughnawagas, instigated by the French, vainly attempt to dissuade the Six Nations from their recent alliance, 219- Impossibility of the Iroquois Confederacy, from their geographical position, remaining neutral, 219.

CHAPTER VI.
1746.
The Canadian Indians desolate the New England frontier, 221--Number Four. Upper Ashuelet and Bernardstown attacked, 222-Command of the posts west of Hoosick mountain confided to Captain Ephraim Williams, 224-Vaudreuil invests Fort Massachusetts, 225-Bravery of the garrison, 226-Its capture, 227-Remarkable conduct of the Indians, 228- Active operations against Crown Point abandoned, 229-Mr. Johnson directed to organize war parties of Indians to harrass the French settlements, 230.-The preparations of the French for the reconquest of Cape Breton prove abortive, 232-Disasters to D'Anville's fleet, 233-Suicide of D'Estournelle, 234-Governor Clinton returns to New York. Dissatisfaction with the Indian commissioners. The management of the Indian department devolves chiefly upon Mr. Johnson, 235.-Trouble between Governor Clinton and his assembly, 236-Henry Holland, by order of Colonel Roberts, breaks open the public store houses in Albany, 238-The assembly urged to their opposition of the governor by De Lancey, 240-Holland declared guilty of a high misdemeanor, 241 -Review of Holland's conduct, 242-The Schuylers take offence at the growing influence of Johnson, 248-Johnson becomes contractor for supplying the Oswego garrison. First step taken toward the establishment of Kings, now Columbia college, 245-Mr. De Lancey makes another demonstration against his rival, Dr. Colden, 246-Johnson pays a visit to Governor Clinton in the autumn. Receives from the governor the rank of colonel. Is recommended by Clinton, through the duke of Newcastle, to his majesty's favor, 247-The operations of the New Englanders in Nova Scotia end disastrously. Inactivity of the enemy during the winter, 248.

CHAPTER VII.
1747.
Shirley conceives the project of a descent upon Crown Point, 249-New York deems the plan impracticable, 250-Active correspondence between Clinton and Johnson in relation to the Indian service, 251-Exertions of Colonel Johnson, 254-Letter from Colonel Johnson to Governor Clinton, 255-Enumeration of scalps taken from the enemy, 257-Attack on Charlestown, N. H., 258-Raising of the seige, 260-Rebuilding of Fort Massachusetts, 261-Clinton again involved in controversies with his legislature, 262-Letter from Clinton to Johnson regarding the disloyalty of some Albanians, 266-Mutiny of the levies at Saratoga, 267-Report of the committee, charged with the preparation of an address to the governor, 273-The attention of the assembly called to the disaffection among the northern levies. Reply of the house, 274-Movements of Sir Peter Warren. Appointed second in command under M. Anson, 275 -Is promoted to the rank of rear admiral of the white, 277-Meets with great success in his cruizes, and is returned to parliament, 278.

CHAPTER VIII.
1747.
Military affairs in the north in a deplorable condition. Desertion of the troops. Murders by the enemy, 279-Captain Chew defeated near Lake Champlain by M. Lacose, and taken prisoner. Schuyler marches to repel the invaders, 280-The Six Nations complain to Schuyler. Clinton concerts measures with Schuyler for relieving Oswego. Governor Shirley meditates an attack upon Crown Point, 281-Clinton lays Shirley's plan before the assembly, 282-Is received coldly, 283-Activity of the enemy. Saratoga surrendered. Johnson writes to Clinton, 284-He demands a guard to escort the stores to Oswego, 286-The assembly refuse to allow them, 287-Letter from Clinton to Johnson, 288-High estimation in which Johnson was held by Clinton. Cause of Johnson's jealousy toward Lydius, 291-Johnson returns from an expedition against Crown Point. The fort at Saratoga in danger of being evacuated through want of provisions, 292-More trouble between Clinton and the assembly, 293-Colonel Roberts directed to send three companies to Saratoga, 294-Colonel Johnson visits New York to consult with the governor respecting tho condition of the colony. His advice, 295-Clinton and Shirley still cling to the expedition against Crown Point. The former again appeals to his legislature and dwells upon the views of Johnson, 296-The assembly respond coldly, 299-The assembly in secret sitting attack Colonel Johnson. Reasons for this attack, 301-Clinton charges the house with falsehood, and adverts to the services of Johnson in terms of high praise, 305-The hopes of the colonies fall to the ground. The duke of Newcastle orders Clinton and Shirley to desist from the intended expedition, 310-Trouble with James Parker, printer to the assembly, 311-Clinton proposes to detail large bodies of the militia for the defence of the frontiers, 312-The assembly charge the governor with inconsistency, 314-Clinton again involved in controversies with the assembly on the question of prerogative, 316-He dissolves the assembly much to its surprise, 318-Review of the controversy, 320- Difficulty between Commodore Knowles and the citizens of Boston on the subject of press gangs. Shirley's house mobbed, 322-Order restored, 325-Governor Clinton presses the command of the northern frontier upon Colonel Johnson. The latter is entrusted with the duty of effecting a complete reorganization of the militia. All confidence reposed in him, 326.

CHAPTER IX.
1748.
Prominence of Johnson in the affairs of the colony-Accepts the command of the troops for the defence of the frontiers. Devotes himself to the management of the Indian department. Becomes favorably known to the colonial and British government. Employs as his housekeeper, Molly Brant, 327.-Beneficial effects of this Indian alliance, 328.-New assembly chosen. The governor's opening speech conciliatory. Arent Stevens succeeds Mr. Bleeker, deceased, as government interpreter to the Indians, 329.-The dissolution of the old assembly produces a better state of feeling in the new one. The answer of the council to the governor's speech moved by De Lancey, 330-Resolutions passed for repairing the fortifications along the frontiers. Robert Charles appointed agent for the colony, to reside in London with a salary of 200 pounds per annum, 331-The action of the assembly attributed to a desire to supplant Clinton in the gubernatorial chair by Sir Peter Warren. Warren not a party to this intrigue, 332-Discontent of the Six Nations. Alarming intelligence from Colonel Johnson and Lieutenant Lindesay of Oswego, 332-Colonel Johnson directed by Clinton to make a tour in the Indian country, 333-Objects to be attained by this tour, 334-Johnson summons a council of the Confederacy at Onondaga. Arrives at the Onondaga castle, and meets with a flattering reception, 335-Proceedings of Johnson at the council, 336-Communicates to the Indians, the intention of Clinton to meet them at Albany, 339-He recommends to the governor strong legislative enactments to prevent the sale of rum to the Indians, 341-A grand council of the Six Nations at Albany, long in contemplation by Clinton and Shirley, 341-Clinton's efforts to second Shirley's plan for an expedition against Crown Point fruitless, 342-Complains to the lords of trade of the continued encroachments of the assembly upon the crown. Lays before the assembly Colonel Johnson's report of the council at Onondaga, 343-Urges an immediate exchange of prisoners. The assembly recommends the sending of a flag of truce to Canada, 344- Colonel Beekman prefers a charge against the governor, 344-Important tidings received from Europe, 345-Letter from Clinton to Johnson, announcing that preliminaries of peace had been signed at Aix la Chapelle, 346-Clinton, accompanied by Dr. Golden, arrives in Albany to attend the grand council. Unprecedented number of Indians present, 348-Proceedings of the council not important, 349-Massacre at Schenectady. No accurate account of it in existence, 350-General result of the council satisfactory, 363-Heart rending tragedy in the town of Hoosick, 354-The borders of Massachusetts and New Hampshire again suffer from the enemy, 361-Narrow escape of Captain Melvin and his party, 362-The enemy generally successful in these border skirmishes, 363-Captain Eph. Williams narrowly escapes capture, 364-Serious trouble among the troops stationed at Albany and along the frontiers. The commissioners refuse to execute the orders of the governor, 365.-Complains of this in a letter to Colonel Johnson, determines to reassert the prerogative in the strongest terms, by bringing the supply-bill to a direct issue, 366-The assembly refuse to grant it, 368-Various successes of the English fleet in the West Indies, 369-Definite treaty of peace signed at Aix la Chapelle. End of the old French war, 370-The Confederates demand the release of their braves in Canada. Negotiations between Clinton and La Galissoniere in relation to the exchange, 371- Embassy of M. Francis Marie. Suspicions of Johnson, 372-Mutual dissatisfaction of all parties, 373.

CHAPTER X.
1749-1760.
Johnson is entrusted with the transfer of the prisoners. Success of his negotiations, 374-Apprehensions of the Mohawks artfully increased by La Galissoniere. Johnson writes Clinton upon the subject. Reply of the governor, 375-Johnson summons both of the Mohawk castles to a conference. Happy results, 376-Trouble between the Indians and a few Albany traders. Proclamation of the governor in regard to it, 377 - General exchange of prisoners effected, 877-Remarkable energy of Colonel Johnson, 378-He thwarts all the plans of Galissoniere and is priests, 379-Encroachments of the French in Nova Scotia, 377 - Colonel Johnson is appointed by the crown to a seat in his majesty's council for the province of New York, 380-This appointment, though unsought, by no means a surprise, 381-Wranglings between the governor and his assembly continue. The post at Oswego in danger of being given up. The assembly dissolved and writs issued for a new one, 382-The assembly allow Colonel Johnson part of the debt due him for provisioning the Oswego garrison, 383-Contemptible conduct of the assembly toward Johnson. Falsely charges him with peculation, 384--Resignation of Johnson as superintendent of Indian affairs. The step not entirely unexpected by Clinton, 385.

CHAPTER XI.
1750-1751.
The peace of Aix la Chapelle received by the colonies with strong feelings of dissatisfaction, 386-Proves to be a peace only in name. Boundaries between the English and French possessions left undetermined, 387-The French occupy the valley of the Ohio. La Presentation founded by Rev. Abbe Piquet, 388-Sagacity of Picquet. La Presentation destroyed by Gage in 1757, 389-Jean Coeur, a French emissary, stirs up the Six Nations against the Catawbas. Johnson advises Clinton of the fact 390- Clinton acting upon the suggestions of Johnson, summons the Confederacy to meet the Catawbas in Albany. Determines to have the ends of the council take a wider scope, and asks the different colonial governors to send delegates, 391-Johnson informs the Mohawks of the governor's intentions. The invitation of Thomas Lee of Virginia declined by the Six Nations, 392-Commissioners present at the council, 393- The Six Nations are grieved at the resignation of Colonel Johnson. They despatch a fleet runner for him, 394-Johnson arrives in Albany to attend the council. Is requested by Clinton to continue in the charge of the Indian department, but peremptorialy declines, 395-Is willing to render every assistance in an individual capacity, 396-Johnson takes the oaths of office as a councillor. Clinton opens the council, 396- Reply of the Confederates. Address of Mr. Bull, commissioner from South Carolinia, 397-Speech of the Catawba king to the Six Nations, 398-Treaty between the Six Nations and the Catawbas concluded, 400--Clinton lays before his council letters from Colonel Johnson and Captain Stoddard of a startling nature. Designs of the French upon Oswego, 402-Col Johnson sent down to the house by the council to demand certain vouchers. They are refused, 403-Churlish treatment of the governor by the house, 404-Master stroke of policy on the part of Mr. Clinton, 405-The French plan farther encroachments upon the territory of New York. Meditate the establishment of a missionary and military post at Oswego. The design frustrated by Johnson. The council grant him Onondaga lake with the land around it for two miles in width. Otherwise than this his debt from the colony never paid, 406.

CHAPTER XII.
1752-1768.

Dawning of a new era in American literature, 407-Johnson indulges in literary pursuits, and sends to London for books, 408-Takes special Interest in the intellectual culture of the Mohawk children. Becomes a prominent patron of the mission school at Stockbridge, 409-Places Joseph Brant under the charge of Dr. Eleazer Wheelock at Lebanon Ct., 410-Closing years of Sir Peter Warren. His death announced to Johnson in a letter from his brother Warren Johnson, 411-William Smith appointed to the seat at the council board, left vacant by Sir Peter Warran's decease, 412-Principal features of the new assembly, 413-Clinton consults Colonel Johnson in the appointment of a new board of Indian commissioners, 414-Fees of Chief Justice De Lancey, 415-He ceases his opposition to the governor, 416-Difficulty in collecting the Oswego duties John De Peyster and Peter Schuyler Jr. charged with speculation. Johnson requested to sift the matter, 416-Makes his report, 417-Hostile Indians still hover along the northern frontier, A party of St. Francis Indians surprise and capture John Stark, afterward the hero of Bennington, 418-Clinton's opening message to the assembly, 418-French again active, 419-Johnson apprised of the movements of the enemy. Alarm of the Six Nations, 420-Indian affairs sadly neglected since the resignation of Johnson. King Hendrik visits Clinton in New York. Complains bitterly of the frauds to which the Indians were subjected in the sale of their lands, 421-Reply of the governor. Disgust of Hendrik, 422-The general assembly request Clinton to send Johnson to Onondaga to pacify the Six Nations, 424- Johnson summons the Mohawks to Mount Johnson, 425-Sets out on his mission, 426-Conference at Onondaga attended with happy results, 427- Arrival of Sir Danvers Osborne as the successor of Governor Clinton, 428-Strange conduct of the new governor. He commits suicide. Suspicions of foul play clearly without foundation, 429-Mr. De Lancey takes the reins of government, 430-His opening message to the assembly, 481-Change in the administration productive of one good result, 438.-Death of Governor Clinton. His character, 434.

CHAPTER XIII.

1753-1754.

Period reached when the active public life of Colonel Johnson begins, 436-Claims of England and France to the Ohio valley, 486-Formation of the Ohio company, 487-Christopher Gist sent to explore the country. Commissioners treat at Logstown with the Mingoes and Shawanese, 438- The French call to their aid the spiritual arm, 439-La Jonquere seizes the English traders. George Washington sent by Governor Dinwiddie to remonstrate with the French commander, 440-His reception by St. Pierre, 441-Mr. De Lancey informs the assembly of the encroachments of the French, 441-Niggardly spirit of the assembly, 442-The lieutenant governor answers the quibbles of the assembly and prorogues that body, 444-Virginia raises a regiment of six hundred men, 445-Washington with his troops reaches Will's creek, 446-The fort at the Monongahela captured by Contrecoeur, who names it Du Quesne, 447-Washington is put on his guard by the half king, 447-Defeats De Jummville. Builds a fort at the Great Meadows which he called Fort Necessity, 448- Surrendered Fort Necessity to De Villiers. The French left in undisputed possession of the basin of the Ohio, 449.

CHAPTER XIV.
1754.
Congress of commissioners assemble at Albany. Its object, 450-Colonies represented. Backwardness of the Six Nations in arriving. Jealousy of the Indian commissioners toward Johnson, 451-True cause of the reluctance of the Indians to attend the council. Lieutenant Governor De Lancey called to the chair, 452-Opening speech of De Lancey to the Indians, 453-King Hendrik replies, 454-The venerable Mohawk brave utters a scathing phillipic, 456-Speech of his brother Abraham. Desires that Colonel Johnson may be reinstated. Biting irony of the speech, 456-Johnson prepares an answer, which is delivered by the lieutenant governor, 457-Johnson, at the request of the commissioner submits a paper on the management of the Six Nations, 458-Measures urged by him, 459-Origin of the Wyoming lands, 460-The Connecticut delegates purchase the lands of the Six Nations. Extent of the land thus purchased, 464-Plan of a general federal union taken into consideration, 465-Plan not adopted. Why it was not, 466-Savage hordes let loose upon the whole frontier. The storm bursts with all its fury, 467-Dutch Hoosic burned by Schaghticoke Indians. Vigorous measures of Shirley, 468-Captain Ephraim Williams given a command with the rank of major. De Lancey vies with Shirley in efficient preparations for defence, 469-The French meditate a descent upon the lower settlements. Johnson places the militia in a condition for efficient service. Difficulties between the militia and regulars at Schenectady, 470-De Lancey announces to the general assembly the defeat of Washington at the Great Meadows, 471-Want of harmony in the assembly 472-Origin of the famous college controversy, 472-The church party writhe under the lash of William Livingstone, 474-Charter of the college granted by Lieutenant Governor De Lancey. He and Johnson become warm friends, 475-Rev. Mr. Barclay resigns his post among the Mohawks for the rectorate of Trinity Church, 476-A fort on the Hudson river above Albany ordered to be built, 477-End of the college controversy, 478.

CHAPTER XV.
1755.
Vascillating course of the Newcastle ministry. Edward Braddock sent to America with two regiments, 479-Dieskau and Vaudreuil arrive at Quebec. Surrender of two French men-of-war. General assembly again convened, 480-Johnson arrives in New York to take his seat at the council board. Delivers to the lieutenant governor a letter from the Mohawks, 481-Shirley again agitates the question of a descent on Crown Point. Thomas Pownal sent as commissioner to New York. Meets with a cold reception, 482-Braddock calls a conference at Alexandria. Four separate expeditions against the French planned, 483- Johnson receives the command of one of them, with the rank of major general. Form of his commission. Receives also the appointment of Indian affairs, 484-Summons the Confederacy to a grand council at Mount Johnson. Informs the Indians of the arrival of General Braddock, 485-The Confederacy, through Hendrik, express great satisfaction tion at his being "again raised up," 486-Johnson, by a stirring speech, persuades them to take up arms in favor of the English, 488 -Shirley hastens to Boston to prepare for the expedition under his command 489-The assembly of New York, urged by De Lancey, enter with alacrity into the work of raising troops for Major General Johnson, 490-Conquest of Acadia, 491-Character of the AMdians, 492-Brutality of General Monckton, 493-Cruel fate of the Acadians, 494-Expedition of Braddook, 494-His defeat, 496-The half king at the solicitation of Johnson, offers his services to Braddock, and is refused, 497-The French prevail on several Indian tribes to take up the hatchet. Susquehannas and Catawbas remain faithful, 498-Shirley's expedition against Niagara, 498-It proves abortive, 490-All eyes turned to the expedition under Major General Johnson, 600.

CHAPTER XVI.
1755.
The forces destined against Crown Point assemble at Albany. General Lyman is sent forward with the greater part of the troops. Johnson delayed by the leaky condition of the bateaux, 501-Difficulty between himself and Shirley. Shirley's conduct, 502-He is piqued at the seeming neglect shown to his position, 504-Johnson heals the dissensions sown among the Indians by Lydius. Arrives at the great carrying place, accompanied by Hendrik and Brant, 506-The New England troops burn to retrieve the disgrace of Braddock's defeat. General Lyman builds Fort Edward, 506-Johuson reaches Lake St. Sacrament, and names it Lake George. Is joined by Lyman, 507-His dissappointment at finding so few of the Six Nations at the lake. Hendrik attributes it to Shirley, 508-Johnson's plan of operations, 510-Movements of Dieskau. A courier sent out by Johnson killed by the enemy, 511-A council of war called. Hendrik's advice, 512-Dieskau arranges an ambuscade. Deaths of Hendrik and Williams, 518-The French fail to take advantage of their first success. The attack on Johnson's camp begun by the French regulars, 514-Dieskau attempts to turn Johnson's right. He fails. Desperate fighting by the Provincials, 515-Utter route of the French. Dieskau, seriously wounded, is taken prisoner. Last words of Gardeur St. Pierre, 516-General Johnson receives a severe wound and is forced to retire to his tent. Captain Maginnis defeats the remnants of the French army at Rocky Brook, 517-Losses of the English and French. Singular historical fact, not generally known, 517-Johnson sends circular letters to the colonial governors. His treatment of Shirley vindicated. The Indians return home, 518-Building of Fort William Henry. Want of alacrity shown by the New England troops, 519-Efforts of Johnson to allay all jealousy, 520-Favorable opinion of Johnson by a New England officer. Scouting parties, under Rogers, annoy the enemy in the vicinity of Crown Point. Johnson disbands his army and returns to Mount Johnson, 521-He is severely censured. Review of his conduct, 521-Manuscript letters now first brought to light, afford a complete vindication of his conduct, 528-He is created a Baronet of Great Britain, and receives the thanks of parliament. Is greeted with an illumination and a triumphal profession by the citizens of New York, 525- Summing up of the results of the battle of Lake George, 526.

CHAPTER XVII.
1755-1756
Sir Charles Hardy arrives in New York as the successor of Sir Danvers Osborne. His first message to the assembly, 530-Good feeling between the new governor and his legislature, 531-Hardy appoints a day of thanksgiving, and sets out for Albany to hasten the departure of the levies 532-Accomplishes little by the visit. Announces to the assembly Johnson's victory over Dieskau. Demands the settlement of a permanent revenue on a solid foundation. The assembly allude especially to the advantage gained by Johnson, 533-Governor Hardy's demand for a permanent support met with quiet indifference, 534-The St. Francis Indians resume their incursions in the New Hampshire border, 535- Shirley, now commander-in-chief of the forces in America, arrives in New York and summons a grand congress of colonial governors, 536- Lays before it his plan for the next year's campaign, which meets with the general approval of the congress, 537-The assembly of New York look coldly upon the proposed expedition against Ticonderoga, and Shirley, in disgust, returns to Boston, 538-Tart correspondence between Johnson and Shirley, 538-The latter yields the point, 539-Johnson is appointed by the crown, " SOLE SUPERINTENDENT OF THE AFFAIRS OF THE SIX NATIONS AND OTHER NORTHERN INDIANS," 540.

APPENDIX.
I. Letter from Colonel William L. Stone to the chiefs and warriors of the Senecas, acknowledging his adoption as a chief of that nation, 541.
II. " A memorandum for trifles sent to London for through Captain Knox," by Sir William Johnson, 546.
III. Sketch of Colonel Ephraim Williams, 547.
IV. Sketch of King Hendrick, 549.
V. Sketch of Fort William Henry (engraving) 553.
VI. Manuscript letter; Sir William Baker to Sir William Johnson, 554.

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