History From America's Most Famous Valleys
Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of
procured in Holland, England and France
by John Romeyn Broadhead, Esq., Agent,
UNDER AND BY VIRTUE OF AN ACT OF THE LEGISLATURE ENTITLED "AN ACT TO APPOINT AN AGENT TO PROCURE AND TRANSCRIBE DOCUMENT IN EUROPE RELATIVE TO THE COLONIAL HISTORY OF THE STATE," PASSED MAY 2, 1839. VOLUME V., ALBANY;
Weed, Pasons and Company, Printers, 1855.
(Note the spelling is from the 18th Century)
Mr. John Cast to Governor Hunter.
[Translated from the French.]
[New York Papers: Aa: 35.]
The deportment of the Palatines continues the same as I had the honor to report to Your Excellency in my last. No person comes here except for tools, either for agricultural purposes, or for altering their huts into houses. After having distributed what I had, I put off the others until the first arrival from New York. Some ask for seed, so that the labor they have expended on their land may not be in vain. I given them to understand that the people fo the country, not anticipating this demand for seed, will find it difficult to supplyt he requisite quantity; that the seed they have brought from Germany, London and even New York will possibly be sufficient for this year, inasmuch as it is more easy for each one to find what he needs, than for us to lay up a supply for the entire people, in the distribution of which each takes what he does not require.
In other respects the people contemplate present settlement for a couple of years. They persuade themselves that Canada will he taken this campaign, and that upon the conquest of that country, as a security for their settlement, they will be established on the lands destined for them. In this opinion they are confirmed by the reports of those who have wintered at Albany; who say, that the inhabitants up there are accordingly very apprehensive of losing the profit they derive from the Indians, and the hay they annually cut on said lands.
Some days ago, five Palatines were sitting around the fire conversing on the prospect of their settlement. They all agreed, that the selection of the Levingston lands was well planned-that their situation between New-York Sopes and Albany was very convenient; that the proximity to the river is of great advantage, and that the exemption from the fear of enemies affords peace and a home to their families. But the desire to possess a good deal of land, upset and demolished, in a moment afterwards, all these advantages. The more moderate and sensible, to remove this, said to them-
What, if, in return for all your pretended rights, the Governor will not give you any other lands than those in the rear of our villages, and be determined that we pass our whole lives here? What can you then do? Nothing, continued the same man, but drawdown by the displeasure of the Governor, evils we do not experience here, and deprive ourselves of the good we now enjoy. For in fine (he continued) as it is our duty, and we must absolutely work for the Queen, it cannot be otherwise than that Her Majesty will put us in a position to earn our obread; for she will not keep us always in this way.
Earn our bread, said another. We came to America to establish our families-to secure lands for our children, on which they will be able to support themselves after we die; and that we cannot do here. What is to be done in that case but to have patience? replied the first. "Patience and Hope make fools of those who fill their bellies with them." Whereupon the whole five burst out a-laughing and changed the conversation.
I asked Mr. Kocherthall in what way his people behave ? He tells me all are at work and busy, but manifestly with repugnance, and merely temporarily-that the tract intended for them is, in their minds, a Land of Canaan-they agree, that it is a very dangerous place to settle at present, and for this reason it is that they are willing to have patience here for a couple of years. But they will not listen to Tar making. He thinks this repugnance can be overcome, as was that to cultivate their gardens; and that the future will furnish with difficulty what the present time would have easily guaranteed, did the people conform to the intentions of their superior.
I have considered it my duty to give Your Excellency communication of all that precedes, for your information. I have no other object in the world, for the remainder of my days, than to serve faitlifully, disinterestedly, impartially, without seeking any other Meum than what can be useful to your Excellency. God preserve me from painting the people in blacker colors than they deserve. But in drawing their portrait I have avoided flattery also. I consider it, of the utmost importance to avoid the one and the other. Thus, by reporting purely and simply what occurs from day to day, whether good or bad, Your Excellency will be able to infer what is to be hoped and what is to be feared.
After the change which has just taken place among the people, I have remarked further, that many heads of families are solicitous for a better form of Magistracy. They frankly say, our affairs will never prosper as long as we are our own masters; each follows his own evil inclinations, and if there be no bridle to act as a check, the man who is well to do will be forced and constrained to defend himself, and to go constantly armed to his work.
Not only is each emulous to be the first to finish his garden, but likewise eager to work so as to be no longer dependent on the inhabitants of the country. For they openly confess, that they have learned sufficiently by experience, that not only do the settlers want to accustom them to work for their daily food, or at most for a'little provisions extra, and [but] have reason to be jealous of their settlement, inasmuch as they see themselves already obliged to lower the price of their articles (ouvrages) in order to retain customers. The mechanics among the Palatines understand this so well, that they do all in their power to set themselves to work, and we assist them as far as our means permit. It is the agricultural portion of them alone that contemplate the possession of a large quantity of land ; these however form the mass of the people to whom I should wish to give occupation after their gardens are completed. It is impossible that they can all find employment among the farmers. At New York, force had to be used to make them cut wood for a shilling a cord, with 1 s. a week for butter and salt. Here they are mighty glad to labor for 1 s. a day. Thus doth folly change with circumstances.
The people, especially those of Queensbury, perniciously abuse the favor Your Excellency extended to them, by saying, If any one happened to have a spot unfit for cultivation, let him have another. Seven belonging to Queensbury have, of their own authority, appropriated other places unto themselves, fell into dispute about them, and two of them have fought each other with axes. The Overseer of the village demands that they be punished so as to prevent other similar assaults. To do what I can, I am this moment on the point of setting out with the Surveyor to examine the lots and the cause,of the dispute, in order to stop the quarrel and apply a remedy to these abuses.
I have drawn up the necessary notices for the dissolution of the two Marriages mentioned by Mr. Hayer(1) to Your Excellency, and have presented them to Mr. Livingstone who says, he is not a Magistrate of that country where the Palatines live, that his jurisdiction is between his Manor and Albany, that application must be made to Mr. Dirck Wessellse ten Broeck. The interested parties desiring the prosecution of these proceedings, I shall address myself accordingly, without giving any explanation for fear of displeasing the honest people, and affording greater encouragement to the wicked in their wickedness; for the good are a long time wishing for the establishment of an effective police which they do not find in the person of an absent judge.
Mr. Wagner whom I deputed to present Captain Gerlach to the people of Annsbury in place of Wormbs, deceased, informs me that they absolutely refuse him as Captain; in fact he immediately returned to his village without pretending any thing. The people of Annsbury since tell me that the majority of them belong to the New York company, and are thereby too much convinced of the malversations he committed in the distribution of the provisions, to wish to fall again into the same misfortune. Singular persistency in an accusation which has never lifted its head during his sojourn at New York.
I am with profound respect,
Your Excellency's most humble
and most obedient Servant
March 27, 1711.
(1) Qu. Rev. John Frederick Heger? He was one
of the Palatine clergymen.-ED.
Secretary Clarke to the Lords of Trade.
[New-York Entries, H. 398.]
To the R(t) Hon(ble) the Lords Commiss(rs) for Trade & Plantations.
His Excellency Collonel Hunter being called on by the season of the year to set the Palatines to work on preparing the Pine Trees, left me his commands in case he should not return before this Packet sailed to acquaint Your Lordships that he is upon that service, desirous by his presence to encourage and to be a witness to their first labours.
He has also commanded me to inform your Lordships of some other things relating to this Government.
The Assembly being dissolved as his Excellency told your Lordships in his Letter of the seventh Instant, a Duplicate whereof I do myself the honour to inclose, He did with the first convenience after, by the Council's advice, issue Writts for the Elect(n) of another to meet the twentyeth of June next; There's but little hopes of such an alteration by this new choice as may make a Majority of sober and considerate men who weighing the circumstances of Her Majesty's Government with honest and dutifull minds may again settle the Revenue for its support, howev(r) his Excellency is resolv'd to leave no means unattempted, and the Country no excuse.
Our affairs with the Indians have at this time likewise a very ill aspect. The Govern(r) of Canada has lately sent to our five nations some officers and soldiers with a large present, who after having assembled and made several propositions to them, give them the Present to the Value of about six hundred pounds mostly in ammunition, all which your Lordships will see more particularly in the two papers mark't J: A:
So soon as his Excellency had notice that these French officers were at Onnondage, he dispached Colonel Schuyler thither with Instructions what to negotiate with the Indians, but has yet received no account from him. Your Lordships will perceive, the French are building a Fortification at Onondage by their permission, which I fear is only a begining for more. The neutrality that has been observed between them this warr, has given our enemy the opportunity of corrupting our Indians, and the country seem generally averse to a Rupture between them, and rather than be at the Expence of supplying them with Amunition in such a Case and defending their Frontiers, which must necessarily follow, choose to sit contented under this precarious security, Without even so much as raising any money for presents to such of the Indians whose fidelity may deserve them, and the Presents his Excellency brought with him being almost disposed of that way, and for Spys last winter (for whom the Assembly made no provision) there's now nothing left to trust to but the Faith of these Salvages, and how much that is shaken already is but to evident from these Proceedings.
His Excellency having appointed a Committee of the Council to digest the table of 1693 and the Ordnance past by him in Council, into such a method as the difference between them might be observed, they met upon it, but finding it impracticable by reason of the deficiency of so many necessary articles in the first, and besides never having had it under their consideration, and for that reason too, tho' they perused it, made their Report to his Excellency, a Coppy of which, with the Papers therein referr'd to, your Lordships will herewith receive, mark't C. R.
The Fees of all the Officers as well as the Practicers of the Law, are, by this Ordinance, Reduced to Law,1 but the Council could not be brought to make them higher, so his Excellency was obliged to establish them as they are, or not at all.
Your Lordships will, I hope, pardon me for giving you this trouble,
and permit me to subscribe myself with the greatest honour and regard. My
Lords, Your Lordships most humble, and most obedient Servant
May 28th 1711 GEO: CLARKE
Secretary OlarTse to the Lords of Trade.
[New Yort Entries, H. 402.]
To the R(t) Hon(ble) the Lords Commiss(rs) for Trade and Plantations.
I have said nothing more of the Palatines in my other letter then that His Excellency was gone up to set them to work on preparing the Pine Trees, not having then received any clear account of their deportment, but since I closed that I have had one full and particular which it will require more time to give it your Lordships, especially at length & with the Copys of some Papers requisite to a thorough prospect of their proceedings than I nov? have, for I expect to be called on every minute, for this however I will endeavour to be as particular as I can now.
About a fortnight agoe his Excellency having received information
from their Overseers and other Officers, that these people had taken a resolution
neither to work in making Pitch and Tarr nor to remain on the land they are
settled upon for that purpose, but even by force if they could not otherwise
effect it, to remove to Schohary (a Tract of resumed Lands) and that they
had actually hindred the Surveyors from laying out more Lots to them strengthening
(1) too Low?-ED.
other in these Resolutions by a secret association, his Excellency was forced to send for a Detachment of sixty from the Garrison of Albany to meet him at the Manor of Levingston which is about two miles from their settlement on the West Side of the River so soon as his Excellency arrived there he sent to all the villages on that side of the River to know how they dared disobey his orders and hinder the Surveyors and other Officers to do their duty.
By their Deputys they returned for answer, that when the Surveyors came to lay out the land, the People called them out, told them 'twas worth nothing, they would have no more, so that it 'twas needless to survey it & that they would have the lands of Schohary which the Queen had ordered them by their contract.
His Excellency replyed that he had often told them that if any man by chance had a bad lott, the Surveyors, on application would lay him out another, as they were ordered, that those who had cleared what was given them might, upon application to the Surveyors, have more: and if what he had already purchased was not sufficient he would purchase more, provided it lay on the River, and near the Pines, that they might ffollow the manufacture that they were destin'd for and obliged to by their contract. That as to the lands of Scohary its the malice of those who would have them for their slaves that put them on demanding it, for that those lands the Indians had not yet parted with, nor were they fit for their labour, no Pine being within twenty miles of it, that it would be impossible to subsist them there, or defend them against y(e) French and French Indians, and besides they had obliged themselves to settle on such lands, as he should assign them, and then desired their final answer, which was that they would have the lands appointed them by the Queen; Whereup" his Excellency, in writing, told them that since neither their duty allegiance or regard to Her Majesty's unparallelled charity and goodness in taking them up, and providing for them when they were starving, and abandon'd by all y6 world besides, had been of any force to keep y(m) within the bounds of their duty, and since they had no regard to a solemn contract signed by them he was come to require and enforce the execution of it, Copys and Translations of which they had in their own language. Then his Excell(cy) desired that what passed between them, Copies whereof were then given y(m), might be communicated to the people, and their last resolution and final answer the next day at four in the evening.
A few Minutes after the Deputys were gone his Excellency was inform'dthat a body of three or four hundred of them were then passing the brook, the Deputys, among wliom were the Captains, returned to him and in appearance seemed softened, and then went to the people who were drawn up in the hill above the House, towards whom his Excellency marching with the detachment, one of the Comissarys who had been with them told him they wanted to pay their compliment to him, so his Excellency walk'd up to them, and ask'd them what they meant by appearing in arms, they told him what they had told the Comissarys, whereupon his Excell(cy) ordered them home to their habitations, and being gone about a mile they discharged all their Firelocks, but their saying they came to pay their Compliment was only a Pretence, for they told two of their Officers, as they were going home, that they came to releive their Deputys in case they had been confined.
The next day the Deputys came according to order with their answer, which begins indeed with a desire that his Excellency would assist them, that they may be settled in the lands of Scohary, but they soon forget that humble stile, and told his Excellency they had rather lose their lives immediatly than remain where they are, that they are cheated by the contract, it not being the same that was read to them in Engl(d), there they say it run thus, that seven years after they had had forty acres ahead given them, they were to repay the Queen by Hemp, Mast Trees, Tar and Pitch or any thing else, so that it may he no damage to any man in his Family. Upon these terms they will perform the contract, but to be forced by another contract to remain on these lands all their lives, and work for her Majesty for the Ship's use, that they will never doe, what does it signify they say to promise them this land, that they shall make Pitch & Tar, They will be obedient to the Queen but they will have the promise kep't, that W Cast read to them in High Dutch in England, and upon that land which was promised them they will be there and, if they cannot, they desire three or four men may goe for England, and lay their case before the Queen, they say likewise there are a great many things promised them, as clothing, household goods, working Tools, w(eh) they desire to have; They say further their people dye for want of care and proper remedys and desire money to subsist themselves, and lastly they say that M(r) Cast told them he'd make them slaves, and therefore desire his Excellency to appoint another in his room.
Whilst his Excellency was talking with the Deputys he received Information that there was a great body of men in arms on the other side of the Brook, and having by that time a reinforcement of Seventy men more, he marched the detachment immediately and passed the Brook, the Palatines were run home to their houses, His Excellency marched to the first Village and ordered them to bring in all their Arms, which they did immediately except a few; He could go no farther that night but the next morning march'd to y(e) other three Villages on the same side of the River and disarmed them all, and then returning to M(r) Livingston sent orders to the Villages on the other side to bring in their arms that day to the Store house to be transported to him, which I believe they have done, if they refused His Excellency in case of necessity had sloops ready to transport the Detachment thither.
Its hardly credible that men who reap so great a benefit as they doe by these people, not only by the consumption of their Provisions, but by the increase of strength, should yet be so malicious to possess them with notions so injurious to themselves & prejudicial to Her Majesty's Interest, but yet it is so, and I believe almost the only cause of their present discontents, the Land they live on is generally good, producing so great a crop that those Farmers and men of skill in husbandry who are. honest enough to wish success to these peoples labours wonder how they could be wrought upon to complain of it, but great pains have been taken to magnify the goodness of that at Scohary above this, and to perswade them that, if they once settle where they are, their is no prospect of their ever removeing, but if they refuse to doe that and insist on their being planted on. the other, the Gov (r) must give way to it, and by these means it is that they are arrived to this pitch of disobedience which I hope will wear off now they are disarmed of their Firelocks, the power by which they hoped to force a compliance to their unreasonable humours.
His Excellency has published a Declaration revoking all military Commission and putting them intirely under the command of their overseers and Directors, as the Queen's hired Serv(ts) and all the good people amongst them who have been meerly misled and fright'ned by the turbulent to join in these tumults, are better satisfyed with that rule of Government.
Whatsoever else they complaine of I dare be bold to affirm, there are not many Planters in the Province so happy, so healthfull and so well cloth'd as they, nor could it well be otherwise considering how well they have been used, they have by their own choice three flesh and four flower days a Week, a pound of beef a head or equivalent in pork and pease, as long as they lik'd them, besides three quarters of a pound of the finest, or a pound of the coarser sort, of bread, which they please, and as good Beer as any man in the Province drinks of at his table ; of flow(r) they have a pound a head, with bread and beer; there is not one of their houses that is not hung round with Provisions and as to their clothing every one has had of Shoes, Stockins, Kerseys, Shaggs, and other sort of Woollen, such a quantity last winter as their occasions required, and now against the summer a sufficient quantity of linnen, the remainder is kept for their use to supply them as they want, which by such management will goe twice as far as by making one general distribution of the whole; of Tools they have had as many as they want, and a great many more have been made for them here, as particularly two hundred barking irons; as to their dying indeed, many did at their first coming, tho none for want of care or proper Applications, but by diseases contracted on board, since they have been planted in the country they liave had as good a share of health as any people in the world, but all sickness was likewise provided against there by Doctors & Medicines, the want of any thing I am sure is no cause of their turbulent behaviour, whatever the care and plenty they have lived in is.
The 24th Ins(t) M(r) Sacket, who has been acquainted with the methods of preparing the Trees, was to visit the Woods in order to divide the work amongst the people and then to teach the overseers how to bark the Trees, that they may instruct the people, so that now I suppose they are all at work, and his Excellency has great hopes for thorough reformation. M(r) Bridger has given over all thoughts of attending this work on any other consideration then that of being hired to it, his Excellency wrote to him to tell him the season of the year approach'd and that it was high time he should be here, he answered if his Excellency would defray his expences he would; The Governor little expected such an answer considering the Salary of two hundred pounds a year sterling allowed him as Surveyor of the Queen's Woods, that by Her Majesty's Royal Letter, under her signet and sign manual, he is expresly commanded to attend that work, and that no Salary is proposed to be allowed him for it by Your Lordships Representation to her Majesty, this put him upon making some farther enquiry after some who had been in the Eastern Countrys, and acquainted themselves with the method of preparing Pine Trees and at length he met with this M(r) Sacket, who undertakes it, and I have very good hopes he will be able to effect it, for he talks more reasonably on that head, then any man I have yet met with, however his Excellency was willing to have M(r) Bridger too, because he was assigned to that work, and for that purpose wrote him two positive orders, in each mentioning Her Majesty's Commands to him, but he still refuses unless on the afore mentioned considerations.
Had he come his Excellency would have reposed but little trust in him, for the method which he formerly proposed to bark the Trees (as he publish'd it in print) would not doe, it has been try'd in Jersey without effect, and to the considerable damage of some men there, nor had he himself better success in Connecticut, as his Excellency is likewise informed from thence; had he been unacquainted with the method of this work he ought to have been engenious in confessing it, that his Excellency might sooner have enquired after some who are acquaint(d) with it, and not have laid hold on that frivolous pretence to conceal his ignorance which however is more excusable than his disobedience to the commands of so gracious Queen, whose bread he has so long, and, as it appears, so unworthily eaten.
This is what, My Lords, I have in command to doe myself the honour to lay before Your Lordships with respect to the Palatines, whatever may have escaped from the haste I am in, for fear of losing the opportunity of the packet, as likewise the Copyes of wliat may be necessary for your Lordship's further information, his Excellency will doe himself the honour to send you by the next.
As to what farther relates to the Indians I inclose you an Caopy of a Letter from the Commission(rs) of the Indian Affairs, and of one from Collonel Schuyler to his Excellency who designs to be at Albany the first of June to meet the Sachems.
I humbly ask pardon for the confus(n) which the want of time may have occasioned in this; and that you will give me leave to subscribe myself as I am, with all possible honour,
Your Lordships most humble
and most obedient Servant
May 30th 1711.
Governor Hunter to the Lords of Trade.
[New York Entries, H. 428.]
To the Right Honb(le) the Lords Commiss(rs) for Trade and Plantations.
............................................first part of document not included in this typing.
As to the Palatines, the tumults raised among them, by the ill arts of such as had a minde to crush the design have had a quite contrary effect, for since that time, and a new modell of management, they have been very busy and very obedient; I have now prepared near a hundred thousand Trees, and in the fall sett them to work about the second preparation. M(r) Sackett who has the direction of that work, and seems perfectly well to understand it, has prepared some thousands in a manner, to produce a quantity of Tarr next spring, but that being little better than an Experiment, I doe not much depend upon it. M(r) Bridgers having basely declined, nay endevoured to betray this service, has promoted it soe that I think Providence favours it, for the Gentleman now employed, has been three years amongst the Tarr workers, in the Eastern Contry's, and his manner is soe different from M(r) Bridger's, that I have good reason to conclude, that he knew little of the matter, and would have served only to have thwarted the other, and obstructed the design; I believe if he were strictly examined, he would discover upon what inducements he has acted soe treacherously ; I yelded to his importunity and let him go to Boston in the Winter, he promising a speedy return, hearing nothing from him in the spring when I expected him to attend that work, I wrote to him to meet me at the Palatine Settlements, which by a letter he refused, pretending want of sufficient encouragement. I wrote to him againe with positive orders to repair thither as he was directed by Her Majesty's special letter, told him that I had applyed to your Lordships for an additional salary for him and put him in mind that he had never been refused money when he called for it, but all to the same purpose I protest to your Lordships whilst he attended to that work he lived as 1 did, and to my knowledge he did not expend the value of a Crowne, and had several sums of money to the value of about thirty pounds from me during that time. I have had by this packet a letter from M(r) Lownds directing me to enquire into some abuses of his, with relation to the Queen's Woods. I have not had time to make a particular enquiry and have only heard in General that instead of preserving, he has wasted them, by giving deputations to such as have saw-mills for certain yearly sums of money paid him by them by which means all the valuable Timber in these parts is destroyed.
That your Lordships may informe yourselves whether wee be in the right in the pursuite of this Manufacture, I will give you an account of M(r) Sacketts method of preparing the Trees. In the Spring when the sapp is up, hee barks the North quarter of the circumference about two foot in length, where the sun has least force to draw out the Turpentine ; in the Fall before the sapp falls down, hee Barks the South quarter about two foot and four inches next spring, the East quarter for the former reason, about two foot and eight inches, and in that fall the remaining quarter near three foot, after which the part above what is bark'd being full of Turpentine, is cut down splitt and put into kills for Tarr.
That noe hands may be idle, wee imployed the Boys and Girls in gathering knotts, whilst their Fathers were a barking, out of which he has made about three score barrells of good Tarr, and hath kills ready to sett on fire for about as much more so soon as he gets casks ready to receive it- .
Now Mylords, tho' I have met with discouragement unspeakable, yet concluding it impossible that the wisdome of Her Ma(tys) Councills should let drop soe beneficial a project, and soe considerable a branch of Trade, when it is in soe hopeful a way, I have launched out all the money and credit I could raise in the pursuit of it, tho' I have as yet no returnes to my first bills I have drawn on Mylord Treasurer for about half a year's subsistance for that people ending the 24th of June last, according to the enclosed scheme mark'd D, which I beg your Lordships would be pleased to second with your recommendations. I have made the best Bridge in all North America, over the River between the Pine Woods and their Settlements, have laid in Timber and all other materials for building the Storehouse upon the place and am about the purchase of a convenient- house without the gates of New York on the Harbour for a General Storehouse. Least I should tire your Lordps I shall refer you to my next for more particular accounts of this and all other matters.
(Remainder of document not included, it pertains to other matters.)
12 Sept. 1711.
Messrs. Perry, Keill and Du Pre to the Lords of Trade.
[New-York Entries, H. 467.]
To the Right Hon(ble) the Lords Comm(rs) for Trade and Plantations--
In obedience to Your Lordships commands, we underwritten, in behalf of His Excell(cy) Robert Hunter Esq: Gov(r) of New York humbly offer the following answers to the several objections and questions made us concerning the settlement of the Palatines in that province, viz(t).
1st Objection:-That there was no need of the Palatines to set the Manufacture of Naval Stores on foot because others might have done as well.
2nd Objection:-That the Governor did not settle the Palatines on the most convenient place for raising such stores.
3rd Objection:-That the Gov(r) was fallen into bad hands, when he contracted with Coll: Robert Levingston, he being represented to have defrauded the Crown of great sums of money when he subsisted the forces at Albany.
4th Objection:-That the Palatines might have hired themselves to day labour, and have earn'd their living.-
1st How long the Palatines are to be subsisted by the Govern(t)?
2nd What Quantity of Tar they are likely to make yearly?
3rd In what manner and in what time the sums advanced by the Queen shall be repaid ?
In answer to the 1st Objection.
We-own, others can raise Naval stores as well as Palatines, provided they be sent upon that design; but since few people in that Country can be spar'd from other labour, there is no considerable quantity of those commodities to be expected, but from the Palatines: And we humbly conceive that the contract made with them, was thought the most effectual means, to set that Manufacture upon a lasting foot, they having thereby oblig'd themselves, to make it their sole business-
To the 2nd Objection.
The Gov(r) before his departure from England did design to setttle the Palatines in the Maquaa's Country, but after he had viewed the same, he judged it impossible for the following reasons-viz(t) 1st Because the purchase thereof from the Indians was not clear. 2nd That it is too much exposed to the incursions of the French and their Indians. 3rd and chiefly, because those lands are distant from the River near 20 miles and Schenectady, besides a Waterfall of 600 foot high, hath the same inconveniency, upon which account the carriage of any thing would cost as much if not more than its worth.-
Now the Gov(r) having found no lands at the Queens disposal, except a tract of 6300 acres on the West side of Hudson's river, which being too small for such a number of families and M(r) Levingston having offered to part with 6000 acres of his lands situated on the other side of the said River distant eight miles above the aforesaid tract at a reasonable rate, His Excell(cy) accepted the offer and purchased it for £200 sterling, so that both settlements are distant about 100 miles from the City of New York on each side of a River navigable by ships of burthen, who may take in their loadings at the said settlements. And for a further demonstration, that this situation was the most proper for answering the ends of the settlement, we humbly refer your Lordships to the draught of-that Country: Within 3 miles or less of the respective settlements there are large tracts of Pine lands the owners whereof have given leave to make use of the trees-M(r) Levingston having reserv'd a sort fit for his saw-mills for planks and Timber and which are of no use for Tarr.
To the third Objection.
M(r) Levingston was always known, to be a careful, industrious and diligent man, who by these more, than by any other means, hath got a considerable estate. It is true that he was accused by a faction in that Country of having defrauded the Gover(t) of great sums when he subsisted the forces at Albany, .but it is as true that he bath honorably clear'd himself, having fairly pas't his accounts before a Committee of Council, upon which he obtained an act of Assembly for releasing him and his Estate that was under a sequestration, until he had so past his accounts; and the reason which induced Gov(r) to deal with him, was not so much his choice as advantage, because the said Levingston made most reasonable and fair offers, and because he was capable of making the largest advances and had most conveniencies for that purpose as Brew house and Bake house. However the Gov(r) did therein act with all the caution and the care imaginable, and the contracts were drawn up by M(r)Mompesson Chief Justice of the province, and made as plain and binding as possible, so well with regard to the purchase of the land as to the Bread and Beer he undertook for, at the rates the Magistrates of the City of New York should from time to time set upon them, and with this express condition, that if the Palatines or their overseers had any legal objection against either the Bread or Beer, he did oblige himself to take it back and give better in lieu thereof. That M(r) Levingston undertook this with a prospect of advantage is so certain, that it might have created an ill opinion of him if it were otherwise.
To the fourth Objection.
The Palatines could not have hired themselves to day labour, without disbanding themselves after their arrival at New York which His Excell(cy) could not have given his consent to, without disobeying the Queen's Instructions, which are positive for settling them in a body, and for subsisting them, until they could subsist of the product of their labour; And we do humbly conceive the Gov(r)could never have answered it to the Queen, and to this Hon(ble) Board, if contrary to his instructions he had suffered the dispersion of them; Whereby all hope of making any benefit by that useful Manufacture had been lost, especially after he had received £8000 from the Govern(t) in part for their subsistence, towards that end. Besides: My Lords, any one who is not altogether a stranger to that Country knows that not above 5 or 600 could have disposed of themselves in that manner, and even half of them could not have found imployment, but in plowing and harvest time; so that above one thousand of them, must either have starved or become a burthen to the Country.-
We shall in the next place humbly offer in answer to your Lordps. Queries:
1st That the Gov'(r) affirms that after Christmas 1712. the Palatines shall be able to subsist of the product of their lands.
2nd That many experiences have demonstrated, that one Man may easily make 60 Barels of Tar in a year; so that computing the number of working hands to be 500, these will raise 30000 barrels in the whole, and so on yearly after the year 1713.
3rd That a Barrel of Tar is sold at New York for 85 sterling so that the whole product will yearly amount to £12,000.
And if the Queen will be graciously pleased to allow them, for an encouragement suppose one mojety out of the yearly product being, £6000. there will remain a yearly sum of £6000. towards discharging the money advanced by the Queen for their settlement and support; so that computing the whole expence to be 40000, they may repay the Queen in seven years or less after the year 1713.
We humbly ask leave to observe further that tho' Tar be only here mentioned, it is not the only thing designed; but as the Gov(r) hath carryed with him Pots and other utencils necessary for boiling Pitch and Rozin the children from 8 years and upwards will be usefully imployed therein, And that Coll: Hunter by a letter to me Micajah Perry gives direction to send him a considerable quantity of Hemp-seed, saying that he hath given orders for preparing lands to sow it in, and dressing of Hemp is a work tliat may be done in the depth of Winter, when people can not stir out of doors, by which means they will have constant imployment-And if this design be duly encouraged and supported, as the Gov(r) hopes it will, it will infallibly compleat and make it a standing Manufacture of Naval stores.
All which is humbly submitted to Your Lordps. prudent consideration by your Lordps. ettc.
11 Dec(r) 1711 MICAJAH PERRY, JOHN KEILL, JAMES DU PRE.
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