History From America's Most Famous Valleys
The Indian In His Wigwam
Characteristics of The Red Race of America
From Original Notes and Manuscripts
By Henry R. Schoolcraft
Dewitt & Davenport
AI.MOLOLOAIAN, a settlement in the district of Cohma, New Spain, of 60 Indian families.
ALOTEPEC, ib. has 67 families.
ALOZOZINGO, ib. has 110 families.
ALPIZAGUA, ib. has 36 families.
ALPOIECA, ib. has 42 families. Another, same name, of 115 families.
ALPOIECAZINGO, ib. has 140 families.
ALPONECA, ib. has 30 families. Another, same name, 77 families.
ALTAMAHA, a river of Georgia.
ALTOTONGA, the name of a settlement of Xalapa, in New Spain. The word signifies in the Mexican language, hot and saltish water, and this comes from the intermingled qualities of two streams which originate in a mountain near to each other, and form by their junction a river which runs into the lake of Alchichica.
ALZOUI, a settlement of 190 Indian families, of Tiapa, in New Spain, or Mexico. They are industrious, cultivating maize, cotton, French beans and rice.
ALMOUCHICO, the Indian name for New England, on the map of " Novi Belgii," published at Amsterdam in 1659.
AMACACHES, a nation of Indians of Brazil, of the province of Rio Janiero. They inhabit the mountains south of the city. They are numerous, and much dreaded, on account of the desperate incursions they have made into the Portuguese settlements. Their weapons are darts, and macanaw, a kind of club made of a very heavy wood. They poison their arrows and lances.
AMALISTES, a band of Algonquins, living on the St. Lawrence, and numbering 500 in 1760.
AMANALCO, an Indian settlement of the district of Metepeque, Mexico, of 1224 families.
AMAPAES, a barbarous nation of Indians in New Andalusia, to the west of the river Orinoco, near the mountains of Paria. They are valiant and hardy, sincere and faithful in their engagements. They live by the chace and by fishing. They make arms, which are tipped by vegetable poisons. They are at war with the Isaperices. Their territory is called, after them, Amapaya.
AMAPILCAN, a settlement of Tlapa, Mexico, containing 15 Indian families.
AMATEPEC, an Indian settlement of Zultepec, Mexico, situated on the top of a mountain, consisting of 80 families. Another settlement, of the same name, in the district of Toltontepec, has 15 Indians families. Both have a cold temperature.
AMATICLAN, a settlement of Huitepec, in Mexico, containing 43 Indian families.
AMATINCHAN, a settlement of Tiapa, Mexico, containing 62 Indian families.
AMATLAN, a settlement of Tanzitaro, Mexico, containing 60 Indian families. Another settlement of San Louis, has 380 families. Another, in the district of Cordova, has 220. Another, in Zacatlan 248. Another, in Cozamaopan has 150. All these bear the same name, with the prefix of the dedicatory patron, Santa Ana.
AMBOY, a bay of New Jersey. This part of the state was occupied, in ancient time, by a tribe or band of the Minci, who were called Sauhikans.
AMEALCO, a settlement of Querataro, Mexico, containing 38 Indian families.
AMECA, a settlement of Autlan, Mexico, containing 43 Indian families.
AMECAMECA, a settlement of Chaico, Mexico, containing 570 Indian families.
AMECAQUE, a settlement of Calpa, Mexico, containing 275 Indian families.
AMERICA ; no nation of Indians on this continent, had, so far as we know, ever generalized sufficiently to bestow a generic name on the continent. The Algonquin terms "-Our Country," AINDANUKEYAN, and " TheWest," KABEAN, were probably the most comprehensive which their intercourse or ideas required. Equivalents for these phrases might be, perhaps, successfully sought among all the most advanced tribes. The instances here given are from the Odjibwa dialect.
AMICWAYS, or AMICAWAES, a tribe or family of Indians, who are spoken of by the French writers as having formerly inhabited the Manatonline chain of islands in lake Huron. The term is from Amik, a beaver. The Ottowas settled here, after their discomfiture, along with the Adirondacks. on the St. Lawrence.
AMIK-EMINIS, the group of Beaver islands of Lake Michigan. The easternmost of this group is called Amik-aindaud, or the Beaver-house. These islands are inhabited by Chippewas. In 1840, they numbered 199 souls, of whom 39 were men, 51 women, and 109 children. All were engaged in the chase, or in fishing, and none in agriculture. Their chief was called Kinwabekizze.
AMIKWUG, a wild roving nation northwest of the sources of the Mississippi. See Beaver Indians.
AMILPA, a settlement of Xochimilco, in Mexico, containing 730 Indian families, who live by agriculture.
AMILTEPEC, a settlement Juquila, M., containing 14 Indian families.
AMIXOCORES, a barbarous nation of Indians of Brazil. They innabit the woods and mountains south of Rio Janerio. They are cruel and treacherous. They are at continual war with the Portuguese. Very little is known of the territory they inhabit, or of their manners.
AMMOUGKAUGEN, a name used in 1659, for the southern branch of the Piscataqua river.
AMOLA, or AMULA, a judicial district in Guadaxalara, Mexico. In the Mexican tongue, it signifies the land of many trees, as it abounds in trees. The change from o to u in the word, is deemed a corruption.
AMOLTEPEC, a settlement of Teozaqualco, Mexico, containing 96 Indian families.
AMONOOSUCK, an Indian name which is borne by two rivers of New Hampshire. Both take their rise in the White Mountains. The upper Amonoosuck enters the Connecticut River, at Northumberland, near upper Coos. The lower, or Great Amonoosuck, enters the same river above the town of Haverhill, in lower Coos.
AMOPOCAN, a settlement of Indians of Cuyo, in Chili, situated along the shores of a river.
AMOZAQUE, a settlement of Puebia de los Angelos, in a hot and dry temperature, containing 586 Indian families.
AMPONES, a barbarous nation of Indians, in Paraguay. They inhabit the forest to the south of the Rio de la Plata. They are of small stature. They are divided into several tribes. They are courageous. They live on wild tropical fruits, and on fish which are taken in certain lakes. They preserve these by smoking. They enjoy a fine country and climate. They find gold in the sand of their rivers, and have some traffic with the city of Conception. Some converts have been made to the Catholic faith.
AMUES, a settlement and silver mine of San Luis de la Paz, in Mexico, It has 43 Indian families, besides 93 of Mustees and Mullatoes. They subsist by digging in the mines.
AMURCAS, a nation of barbarous Indians, descended from the Panches, in New Grenada. They live in the forests to the south of the river Magdalena. But little is known of them.
AMTISKEAG, the Indian name of a fall in the river Mernmack, New Hampshire, 16 miles below Concord, and 7 miles below Hookset falls.
ANA, SANTA. Of the fifty-five names of places in Mexico, or New Spain, mentioned by Alcedo, which bear this name, seven are the seat of a joint population of 544 Indian families. Of these, 31 are in Zaqualpa ; 117 in Zultepec; 124 in Toluca; ,134 in Gholula ; 18 in Yautepec , 25 in Mitia; 70 in Amaqueca, and 149 in Huehuetlan.
ANAHUAC, the ancient Indian name of New Spain, or Mexico. The valley of Mexico, or Tenochtitlan, is, according to Humboldt, situated in the centre of the cordillera of Anahuac. This valley is of an oval form. Its length is 18 3/4 leagues, estimating from the entry of the Rio Tenango into lake Chalco to the foot of the Cerro de Sincoque, and 12 1/2 leagues in breadth, from St. Gabriel to the sources of the Rio de Escapusalco. Its territorial extent is 244 1/2 square leagues, of which only 22 square leagues are occupied by lakes, being less than a tenth of the whole surface. The circumference of the valley, estimating around the crest of the mountains, is 67 leagues. This crest is very elevated in most parts, and embraces the great volcanoes of La Puebla, Popocatepetl, arid Iztacchihuatl. There are five Likes in this valley, of which, that of Tezcuco is the largest. All are much diminished in the quantity of water they yield, since the 16th century, which is owing, in put, to the destruction of trees by the Spaniards, but most directly to the canal of Huehuetoco, cut through a mountain, by which the waters are drawn into the river Panuco, and thus find their way into the Atlantic. By this work, the city of Mexico itself was freed from all effects of periodical inundation, and the site enlarged and rendered better suited to streets and carriages. The waters of lake Tezcuco are impregnated with muriate and carbonate of soda. Those of Xochimilco are the most pure and limpid. Hunibold found their specific gravity to be 1.0009, when distilled water at the temperature of 54 degrees Fahrenheit, was 1.000, and that of Tezcuco 1.0215.
Of the five lakes mentioned, Xochimilco and Chalco contain 6 1/2 square leagues; Tezcuco, 10 1/10; San Christoval, 3 6/10; and Zumpango, 1 3/16. The valley is a basin, surrounded by an elevated wall of porphyry mountains. The bottom of this basin is 2,277 metres, or 7,468 feet above the sea.
ANALCO, a settlement of Guadalaxara, in Mexico, containing 40 Indian families.
ANASAGUNTAKOOK, a band of the Abenaki, on the sources of the Androscoggin, in Maine.
ANCAMARES, a nation of Indians inhabiting the shores of the river Madera. They are very warlike and robust. In 1683 they attacked the Portuguese, and compelled them to give up the navigation of the river. They are divided into different tribes. The most numerous are the Ancamares, who inhabit the shores of the river Cayari.
ANCAS, a nation of Indians in Peru, who, on the 6th January, 1725, were overwhelmed and destroyed by the ruins of a mountain which burst forth by an earthquake. Fifteen thousand souls perished on that occasion.
ANCE, or HANCE'S band of Chippewas, living at Point St. Ignace, on the straits of Michilimackinac, in Michigan. This band, in 1840, as denoted by the annuity pay rolls, numbered 193; of whom, 33 were men, 54 women, and 106 children. They subsist in part by hunting the small furred animals Still existing in the country, and in part by fishing. They migrate from place to place, as the season varies, plant very little, and are addicted to the use of ardent spirits.
ANCLOTE, an island on the southwest coast of Florida; also,
a river flowing into the gulf at that locality, which is also called, in the
Seminole dialect, the Est-has-hotee.
ANCHTCTES, a nation of infidel Indians inhabiting the forests of the river Napo, in Quito. They are numerous, savage, treacherous, and inconstant.
ANDASIVS, a nation formerly inhabiting the territory on the
shores of lake Erie, southwest of the Senecas. They were extirpated, by
ANDAIG WEOS, or CROW'S FLESH, a hereditary chief of the Chippewa nation, living towards the close of the last century at the ancient Indian village of La Pointe Chegoimegon, on lake Superior. He possessed qualities, which, under a different phasis of society, would have developed themselves in marked acts of benevolence. Numbers of anecdotes; favourable to his character, are related of him, and have been handed down by tradition among the French residents on that remote frontier. Although a warrior, engaged in frequent expeditions against the enemies of his tribe, he opposed the shedding of the blood of white men who were encountered, in a defenceless state, in the pursuits of trade. He also resisted the plunder of their property. He had a strong natural sense of justice, accompanied with moral energy, and gave utterance to elevated and ennobling sentiments in his intercourse.
ANDREAS, SAN, A settlement of Texupilco, in Mexico, containing 77 Indian families; another of Toluco, of 134; another in TIalotepec, of 33; another in Tuxtia, of 1170; another in Guejozingo, of 15; another in Papalotepec, of 20 ; another in Hiscoutepec, of 68 ; another in Tepehuacan, of 40 ; all under the same dedicatory name.
ANDRUSCOGGIN, the main western source of the river Kennebec, in Maine.
ANGAGUA, SANTIAGO DE, a settlement of Valladolid, Mexico, containing 22 Indian families.
ANGAMOCUTIRO, a settlement of the same district with the preceding, containing 106 Indian families.
ANGARAES, a province of Peru, containing six curacies or parishes of Indians.
ANGELES, PUEBLA DE LOS, the capitol of the province of Tiaxcala, in New Spain, or Mexico, founded in 1533. The entire number of Indian families within this important jurisdiction is 3,200, which, at the ordinary rate of the estimation of Indian population here, that is, five souls to a family, gives an aggregate of 16,000. These are descendants of the ancient Azteecs, who inhabited the country on its conquest.
This is, however, but the population of the chief town or capital. The entire intendency of Pueblos de los Angeles contained, in 1793, 508,098 souls. Of this number, 373,752 were Indians of pure blood, divided into 187,531 males, and 186,221 females. There were also 77,903 of the mixed race, divided into 37,318 males, and 40,590 females. But 54,980 were Spaniards, or whites, exclusive of 585 secular ecclesiastics, 446 monks, and 427 nuns.
This preponderance of the native Indian population is^till more striking in the government of Ilaxcala, which, of course, includes the capital above named. In 1793, it contained a population of 59,177 souls; of which, 42,878 were Indians, divided into 21,849 males, and 21,029 females. The town is governed by a Cacique, and four Indian Alcaldes, who represent the ancient heads of the four quarters, still called Teepectipac, Ocotelaico, Quiahtuitztlan, and Tizatlan. By virtue of a royal cedula of 16th April, 1585, the whites have no seat in the municipality. The Cacique, or Indian Governor; enjoys the honors of an alferes real. Notwithstanding the zeal of a Spanish intendant general, the progress of the inhabitants in industry and prosperity has been extremely slow. The secret of this is, perhaps, revealed in the fact that four fifths of the whole property belongs to mort-main proprietors, that is to say, to communices of monks, to chapters, corporations, and hospitals. Their trade is a also depressed by the enormous price of carriage from the table lands, and the want of beasts of burden.
The geology and antiquities of this part of Mexico, are equally interesting. The intendency of Puebia is traversed by the high Cordilleras of Anahuac, which, beyond the 18th degree of latitude, spreads into a plain, elevated from 1,800 to 2,000 metres above the level of the ocean, or from 5,905 to 6,561 feet. In this intendency is also the Popocatepetl, the highest mountain in Mexico. Humboldt's measurement of this volcano makes it 600 metres (1,968 feet,) higher than the most elevated summit of the old continent. It is, indeed, only exceeded between Panama and Behring's Straits, by Mt. St. Elias.
The table land of Puebia exhibits remarkable vestiges of ancient civil ization. The fortifications of Tiaxcala are posterior in the date of their construction to the great pyramid of Cholula. This pyramid, or teocalli, is the most stupendous monument erected by the race. Its squares are arranged in exact accordance with the astronomical parallels. It is constructed in stages or terraces, the highest of which is 177 feet above the plain. It has a base of 1423 feet. By a passage excavated into the north side of it, a few years ago, it is found to be solid, and to consist of alternate layers of brick and clay. Its centre has not, however, been reached. In height exceeds the third of the great Egyptian pyramids of the group of Ghiza. In its base, however, it exceeds that of all other edifices found by travellers in the old continent; it is almost double that of the great pyramid of Cheops. To conceive of the vastness of the structure, let the traveller imagine a square four times the size of the Place Vendome, piled tip with brick, in terraces, twice the utmost height of the palace of the Louvre.
The Indians of the province of Tlaxcala speak three languages, differing from one another, namely: the Mexican, Totonac, and Tiapanac. This first is peculiar to the inhabitants of Puebla, Cholula, and Tlascalla; the second to the inhabitants of Zacatlan; and third is preserved in the environs of Tlaya. The population of the entire intendency of Puebla, in 1803, that is, ten years after the census above noted, had advanced to 813,300 in an extent of 2,696 square leagues, giving 301 inhabitants to the square league. Small as this may appear, it is four times greater than that of Sweden, and nearly equal to that of the Kingdom of Arragon.
ANIALIS, a barbarous nation of South American Indians, in the Ilanos of Casanare and Meta, in the new kingdom of Grenada. They are descended from the Betoyes. They are very numerous, and of a gentle nature. The Jesuits established a mission among them in 1722.
ANNACIOIS, or ANNACOUS, a barbarous nation of Indians, of the province of Puerto Seguro, in Brazil. They inhabit the woods and mountains to the west, and near the rivers Grande and Yucara. They are in a constant state of warfare, night and day. They are irreconcileable enemies of the Portuguese, whose colonies and cultivated lands they continually infest, and which they destroyed in 1687.
ANNEMOSING, the name of the Ottowas, and Chippewas, for the Fox Islands, of lake Michigan. It is derived of Annemose, a young dog or fox, and ing, a. partiel" denoting place, or locality.
ANNEMIKEENS, a Ctnppewa hunter of Red River, in Hudson's bay, who survived a conflict with a grisly bear. After being terribly lacerated, in his face and liiuba, but not deprived of consciousness, he affected death, The animal then seized him gently by the neck, and dragged him to a thicket, where he was left, as it was thought, to be eaten when the calls of hunger should demand. From this position he arose, first setting up, and binding ??? (bad text) of his lacerated flesh down, and afterwards rose, and succeeded in reaching his wigwam, where, by skill in the use of simples, his wounds were entirely healed. The name signifies little thunder, being a compound from Annimikee, thunder, and the diminutive inflection in us.
ANNUTTELIGO, a hammock brought to notice in the late war with the Seminoles, in Florida. It is situated east of the Withlacooche river.
ANOLAIMA, a settlement of locaima, in New Granada, containing a small, but indefinite population of Indians.
ANTALIS, a barbarous and warlike nation of Indians, in the kingdom of Chile, to the west of Coquimbo. They valorously opposed the progress of the Inca Yupanqui, compelling him, in the end, to terminate his conquests on the other side of the river Maule, the last boundary of Peru.
ANTIQUITIES, See the articles Grave Creek, Marrietta, Circleville, &c.
ANTHONY ST.; the falls of, being the fourth and lowermost of the perpendicular, or prominent falls of the Mississippi, and by far the greatest. The first fall of this stream is the Kakabika, situated about half a day's journey below Ilasca lake; the second is called Pukagama, and occurs be low the influx of the Leech lake branch. The third is below Elk river and is passable in boats and canoes, St. Anthony's is the most considerable of the series, and the only one which presents an abrupt plunge of the stream from horizontal rocks. They were thus named by Hennepin, about 1680. By the Dacotah Indians, who inhabit the country, they are called Haha. It is at this point, that the Mississippi, which gathers its waters from high table lands, and has its course, for several hundreds of miles, through diluvions superimposed on the primitive, first plunges into the great secondary formation. For more than a thousand miles, in its way southward, its banks are rendered imposing and precipitous by this formation. At or near the Grand Tower, and its adjunct precipice, on the Missouri shore, this formation ceases, and the river enters the great delta, which still confines it, for a like distance, before it expands itself, by its bifurcations, and final exit, in the Gulf of Mexico, at the Balize.
ANTONIO, SAN., The following statistical facts, denote the Indian population, of sundry settlements, bearing this name, within the former government of New Spain, now Mexico. In the limits of Tollman, 32 families; in Taropolomon, 128 ; in Toluca 51; in Metepec 261; in Coronango, 44 ; in Huehuetlan, 140 ; in Chapala, 27.
APACAHUND, or WHITE EYES, a Delaware chief of note, of the era of the American revolution, who is frequently mentioned in documents of the times.
APACES, SAN JUAN BAUTISTA DE, a settlement of Zeiaga in the province and bishopric of Mechoacan, containing 135 Indian families. Another settlement, of the same name, with the dedicatory title of Santa Maria, in the district of Zitaguaro, contains 24 families.
APACHES, a nation of Indians, located between the Rio del Norte and the sources of the Nuaces, who were reported, in 1817, at 3,500. In an official report submitted to Congress, in 1837, their numbers " within linking distance of the western frontier," are vaguely put at, 20,280.
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