History From America's Most Famous Valleys
The Orderly Book of Sir John Johnson
During the Oriskany Campaign
Annotated by Wm. L. Stone
With an Historical Introduction illustrating the Life of Johnson by J. Watts De Peyster, and Some Tracings from the Foot-Prints of the Tories, or Loyalists in America by T. R. Myers.
Joel Munsell, 1882
LIEUT. COL. SIR JOHN JOHNSON'S COMPANY
(Part One, the file has to broken in segments.)
Col. Sir John Johnson's Command
KEY to the abbreviations in the Orderly Book.
C. (before a proper name)--Countersign.
C. (in guard detail)--Corporal.
D. -------------Drum or drummer.
G. O.-----------General Order
K. R. R. N. Y.---King's Royal Reg't of New York, Sir John Johnson's Reg't.
P. (before a proper name)--Paroled.
P. and Pt (in a guard detail) Privates.
SAM'L Street, Sergt.; Sam'l Moss, Sergt. ; John Boice, Sergt.; McGrigor, Sergt. Corpl. Crowse, Corpl. McGrigor, Corpl. Russell, Corpl. Cook, Sergt. Hillyer, Corpl. Smith, Corpl. Campbell, Sergt. Andw. Young, Lieut. Singleton, Ens. Byrne, Ens. Crothers, Ens. Crofford, Ens. Hysted.
* ALTHOUGH this title purports to be only the "Orderly Book of Sir John Johnson's Company" (all right flank companies were considered as commanded by colonels as honorary captains but in reality were commanded by a captain lieutenant ranking after full captains), yet the Book, in the various orders issued, is, of course, a reflex of the daily history of the different regiments engaged in the Expedition. These may be classified as follows:
1st. "The 34th Regiment." This was St. Leger's own Regiment. It was formed in 1702 in Norfolk, Essex and adjoining counties ; and the date of the first colonel's commission was Feb. 12th, 1702. Its uniform was red, faced with pale yellow.
2d. "The King's Royal Regiment of New York " otherwise called "The Queen's Loyal New Yorkers," "Sir John Johnson's Regiment," and unofficially by contemporaneous writers, " Johnson's Royal Greens * from the color of their coats. All Provincial Regiment's, however, were originally dressed in green, and afterwards in red like regulars. This Regiment was made up of the disaffected Tories and Loyalists of the Mohawk Valley, being recruited chiefly from Sir John's friends and neighbors , and whenever, in the Orderly Book, "The Regiment" simply is mentioned, this one is alone referred to.
3d. A portion of the 8th Regiment, or "King's Regiment of Foot," which was stationed in detachments along the Western Lakes at what were called the Upper Posts, i. e., those the most remote from Quebec, such as Niagara, Detroit, Michilimackinac, etc. For a sketch of this Regiment see note in advance.
4th. "Butler's Tory Rangers," under the command of Lieut. Col. John Butler, a brother-in-law of Sir John Johnson, and who with his men had lately arrived at Oswego from Niagara to take part in the Expedition.
5th. One company of the "Hanau Chasseurs," picked riflemen and trained and skillful soldiers.
6M. One company of Canadians carrying broad axes to cut roads through the woods for the artillery.
7th. The Indians composed of the Missisagues (a clan of the Hurons) and a few of the Six Nations under the immediate command of Col. Daniel Claus and Joseph Brant (Thayendanegea).
8th. The artillery which consisted of such pieces as could easily be transported in boats, and which was made up, according to Col. Claus's letter to Secretary Knox of Oct. 16, 1777, of two six pounders, two threes, and four cohorns or small mortars, especially designated from "Whitehall.
1776 4th Novemr. Parole London. Countersign Cork. For Guard tomorrow Lt. Walker,
1 LA PRAIRIE de la Magdelaine (Seigniory) is situated on the south side of the St. Lawrence in the county of Huntingdon, L. C. This tract was granted, on the 1st of April, 1647, to the Order of Jesuits whose possessions were once so large and valuable within that province. On the death of the last of that order settled in Canada, it devolved on the Crown, to whom it now belongs. In front of the Seigniory is the village of La Nativite de Notre Dame, or La Prairie, formerly called Fort La Prairie from having once had a rude defence thrown up to protect it from the, surprises or open attacks of the Iroquois or Six Nations who possessed the country in its vicinity. Such posts were established in many places in the early periods of the colony, while the Indians remained sufficiently powerful to resist the encroachments of the settlers. At present, none of them retain, either in Canada or the United States, a vestige of their ancient form, while but very few possess even the name by which they were originally known. The position of La Prairie was at this time extremely favorable for military operations, from the numerous roads that diverge from it in different directions, and particularly on account of its being the point where communication could be made to Montreal and thence with the main road leading to St. John's, and thence again, by Lake Champlain to the American colonies. This was the route taken by Burgoyne. Indeed, from its contiguity to the line of boundary separating Canada from the United States, this part of the district was fated to bear the brunt of war against the Lower Province, and in 1812, a British corps of observation was encamped towards the center of La Prairie to watch the motions of Gen. Dearborn, who had there assembled a considerable force on the frontiers.
2 Sergts, 2 Corporals, 1 Drumr & 15 Privates. The Kings' Royal Regt of New York to hold themselves in Readiness to leave this Quarter Immediately.
1776 7th Nov. P. Lachine. C. Point Clair. Major Gray.(1) Capts Brown & Delly, with their Compns to march off Immediately to Point Clair & to be Quartered as follows: The Major & Capt Delly, with their Companies at Point Clair & Capt Brown With a Detachment of a Sergt and ten from the Cols Compy, a Corporal & 4 Men from Capt Watts and Capt McDonald's Comps to be at St. Anns, the Cols Comps and Capt Watts, together with the Staff to be Quartered in the Parish of Lachine in the following manner. The (lower) Capt Watt's in the Upper parts of the Parish of Lachine. For Guard tomorrow 1 S. 1 C. & 9 men. Compns duty1 S. 1 C. 5 P.
1776 8th November. P.McLou. C.Philips.
1 At the time that Sir John Johnson, in 1776, was forced to fly into Canada, into which the island of Montreal is Major Gray, then lieutenant of the 42d, helped to raise the faithful bodyguard of one hundred and thirty Highlanders that accompanied him. Indeed, throughout this Orderly Book, one can see that the name "Sir John Johnsons' Regiment" is well deserved; for its colonel evidently chose for its officers those of his friends whom he know by personal experience were staunch and could be relied upon in all emergencies.
2 LA CHINE one of the nine Parishes into which the island or Montreal is divided, is a post-village nine miles southwest of the city of Montreal, and is situated directly opposite to the Caughnawaga village. It is built on a fine gravely beach, at the head of Lake St. Louis, which is a broad part of the St. Lawrence River. At the time of the American Revolution, it contained very extensive storehouses, belonging to the King of Great Britain, in which were deposited the presents for the Indians as
For Guard tomorrow, 1 Serg. 1 Corporal and 9 privates.
1776 9th Novmr. P. Carick. C. Cork. For Guard to Morrow, 1 Corp & 4 Privates.
1776 10th Novmr. P. Gray. C. Week. For Guard to Morrow 1 Corp, & 4 Privt. It is the Commanding officer's ords, that Capt. Watts's Comps hold themselves in readiness to March to Point Clair to Morrow Morning at 9 o'clock where they shall receive provisions-Capt Daly's Comp are to Receive Provisions at Lachine,
1776 12th November, P. Drogheda. C. Clonmell.(1) For Guard to Morrow 1 Corpl. & 4 men. The Commanding officer desires that the men assist the Inhabitants in whose houses they are Quartered, in cutting fire-wood for their own use this winter.
soon as they were received from England. It is the center of commerce between Upper and Lower Canada ; and boats for the Northwest Territory start from here. A railroad now connects La Chine with Montreal; also, a canal to avoid the rapids of St. Louis. It is a place of considerable importance, and consists, besides private dwellings, of a number of store and warehouses. There is, also, a large dry-dock for the repairing of the batteaux.
It further derives importance, in this connection, from the fact that Sir John Johnson's Regiment was concentrated at La Chine, June 1st, 1777, when St. Leger joined it with the detail of his own regiment, the 34th. In fact, La Chine was the rallying, or rather, perhaps, the starting point of St. Leger's Expedition, as the detachment of the 8th did not join St. Leger until it reached a more western point, probably Oswego. Capt. Rouvill's company of Canadians joined at La Chine ; and on the list of June (as appears by the Orderly Book) St. Leger left La Chine. On that or the next day, Jessup's Corps proceeded (probably by water) to join Burgoyne's force, which rendezvoused at St. John's. 'The Standard of England was hoisted on the "Radeau" (a floating battery on a sort of raft-like vessel), and saluted the forts and fleet on June 13 at St. John's; and on the 16th the fleet slowly started up the Richelieu or St. John's river, being joined on its stow progress the first few days by the troops that were to take part in Burgoyne's Expedition. It will thus appear, that St. Leger and Burgoyne got off practically at the same time from the neighborhood of Montreal.
(1) One wonders whether, when the names of "Drogheda" and "Clonmell"
1776 3 ist December. P. Howe. C. Carleton. For guard tomorrow, 1 Serg. and 6 men. Ens. Crawford officer of the day. The two Companys that are Cantoned here, to hold themselves in Readiness to march towards Point Clair Thursday next if the weather permit.
1777 4th January. P. London. C. Edinburgh. For Guard tomorrow 1 Sergeant & 6 privates. Ens. Crawford, officer of the day.
ORDERLY Provost M.
The Camp Equipage to be examined & kept in good condition-The troops, likewise, will hold themselves in readiness to march on the Shortest Notice; they are frequently to be assembled on their Regimental Alarm-Posts, & March to the Alarm-Post of the Brigade when
were announced to the troops, as the passwords of the day, the Irish soldiers recalled the fact, that those two towns, a little more than a century before, had been the scenes of Cromwell's most brilliant victories and greatest atrocities-and, also, whether from the standpoint of their nationality, they remembered that it was a war waged by the "Great Protector" against their freedom ! and, if so, did they, as they lay in their tents that night, reflecting on the order, draw a parallel between the fact that their employer (England) was now making them the instruments for subordinating a people, also struggling for their liberties ? The town of Clonmell, especially, should have recalled these things to their minds. That town still bears the marks of Cromwell's siege. The old castle in the center of the town, which for eight days successfully resisted the cannon of the Protector, can today easily be distinguished from the more modern portion, by its masonry. There is, also, the "West Gate" which yet shows the marks of Cromwell's bombardment. The surrounding country is beautiful (as I can testify from personal observation); and on the river Lair, on which stands the town, some of the finest butter in Ireland is made. Clonmell, also, is the capital of the county of Tipperary which is remarkable for its political independence of thought and action , many instances having occurred where citizens, imprisoned for political offenses, were elected to Parliament while in jail without any expense to them, and against the combined opposition of the Government, landlords, and a majority of the priests. O'Donovan for instance, was an example of this kind.
the Weather will permit-They will practice Marching on Snow-Shoes, as soon as they receive them.(1) Reports are to be made by all the British to Major General Philips, (2) and by all the Germans to Major General Riedesel where the alarm Posts are, both of the Regiments and the Brigades in order to be forwarded to the Commander in Chief-A Statement likewise to be given in of the Camp Equipage-Reports are also to be made to the Quarter Master Genl at Montreal from each Corps of the Number of Boats they
(1) This practicing on snow-shoes undoubtedly originated with General Riedesel. Indeed, he alone of all the generals sent our by the mother country seems to have put aside tactics fitted only for a parade in Hyde Park or for maneuvering on the plains of Flanders, and adopted such drilling as would best suit the changed condition of affairs. Indeed, during the time Riedesel was In Canada with the "Brunswick Contingent" he, with the practical strategy and acuteness of observation which always distinguished him, had employed himself in drilling his men to meet the style of fighting adopted by l:he Americans. Thus, in one of his letters, he writes, " I perceived that the American riflemen always shot further than our forces-consequently, I made my men practice at long range, and from behind bushes and trees, that they might be enough for them." Stone's Life and Journals of General Riedesel. In the same way, as will be seen further on, St. Leger insists upon his troops employing their spare moments in practicing at a mark. Both Riedesel and St. Leger were thus only anticipating Creedmoor.
(2) Major General William Phillips was appointed captain of artillery, May 12th, 1756, and brevet lieut. colonel in 1760. In 1776, having already become distinguished as an artillery officer, and given proof of exceptional strategical skill, he was appointed major general in Burgoyne's Expedition. At the battle of the 19th of September, 1777, he greatly assisted General Riedesel in bringing up his command, which - together with Riedesel's efforts-was the sole means of retrieving the fortunes of that day. In the battle of the 7th of October, 1777, (fought on the same ground) both his aides were wounded, and he, himself, shortly after, shared the fate of Burgoyne's army, which surrendered to Gates, Oct. 17th, 1777. He followed the "Convention Troops" to Virginia, and having, meanwhile, been exchanged, he was sent from New York In the Spring of 1781, with 2,000 men, to join Arnold, then at the Chesapeake. He did not, however, long survive his misfortunes, as he was carried off by a fever at Petersburg, Va., May 13, 1781. Major General Phillips, at his death, held the office of lieutenant governor of Windsor. Stone's Burgoyne, Army Lists, Auburey's Travels.
have in Charge, specifying their condition and
how furnished with Oars, Setting-Poles, &c.
Signed, E. FOY, (1) Depy. Adjt. General.
(1) Edward Foy received a commission of first lieutenant in the Royal Artillery on the 2d of April, 1757, and became captain lieutenant on the 1st of January, 1759. In the month of July, following, as a captain of one of the British artillery companies or batteries, he acted with such bravery at the battle of Minden as to be specially distinguished on the day after the battle by the commander-in-chief in his address to the army. He was promoted to a captaincy in February, 1764, and accompanied Lord Dunmore, as his private secretary, to New York in 1770, and went thence with his Lordship to Virginia, in 1772. Burke, in his History of Virginia, says that Captain Foy "resigned his office as governor of New Hampshire for the purpose of accepting the inferior post of private secretary to Dunmore," and attributes the circumstance to some latent purpose of the British Ministry to em ploy his talents in carrying out those measures which had already been devised." O'Callaghan, however, thinks that this cannot be the case, as Foy was gazetted lieutenant governor of New Hampshire only in July, 1774, nearly two years after his arrival in Virginia, and four years after he had become Lord Dunmore's secretary. During his stay in that colony, Capt. Foy unfortunately shared much of the odium that attached to the governor, with whom he retired on board the Fowey on the 8th of June, 1775. In the address of the House of Burgesses on the 9th of June, following, they accused the governor of "giving too much credit to some persons who, to the great injury of the community, possessed much too large a share of his Lordship's confidence," alluding to Capt. Foy, as "an Englishman of violent passions and hostile prejudices against us," and who was considered governor de facto. The Countess of Dunmore sailed soon after and arrived in England in August, 1775, Capt. Foy returning home about the same time, with dispatches for the ministry. In the Spring of 1776, however, he returned to America, in the ship Pal/as as commissary of the troops in Canada ; and in the same year was appointed Carelton's deputy adjutant general, a position which he continued to fill until his death in Canada, in 1780. Both his wife and himself were on terms of friendship with General and Mrs. Riedesel. He accompanied Riedesel to America on board the ship Pallas as both occupying the same state-room. The companionship seems to have been mutually agreeable. Speaking of their experiences on the voyage, Riedesel, who preceded his wife to America, writes to her as follows : "* * Near all were sea sick. The cook could not cook. Muller could not dress me. Valentine could find nothing. To sum up, great lamentation and great blundering arose on all sides. Hungry, I had nothing to eat. Finally, Captain Foy and myself cooked a pea-soup in the sailor's kitchen, and eat cold roast beef, which made up our whole dinner. Monday the weather was somewhat milder, and some of the people became better, though most of them remained sick. Captain Foy and I once more cooked a portable bouillon soup, a cod with anchovy sauce, a ragout from roast beef, and a piece of roast veal with potatoes. On Tuesday, the cook still could do nothing, and Foy and myself again did the cooking." Capt. Foy was a man of large frame and of a powerful physique. His wife was an American lady, who seems, at times, to have caused her husband a good deal of annoyance by her love of ease and unwillingness to make those sacrifices which are inseparable from the life of a soldier's wife. Life of Gen. Riedesel, N. Y. Col. Doc.
GENERAL ORDERS BY MAJOR GENERAL PHILIPS
MONTREAL 5th December 1776
Officers coming to Montreal upon Leave for a longer Time than two days, are to give in their Names to the Adjt of the week. Marking to what time their leave of absence extends, & by whom given.
Sign'd Arr. JAS. POMEROY(1).
MONTREAL 12th December 1776
Orders received from his Excellency the Commander in Chief, dated Quebec, 9th December, 1776.
The Commander in Chief [Carleton2] has been
(1) Arthur James Pomeroy; at this time captain in the ist Dragoons, commissioned captain, Oct. 5th, 1776.
(2) Sir Guy Carleton (Lord Dorchester). He was born at Strabane, Ireland, in 1722, and died Nov. 10, 1808. Entering the guards at an early age, he became a lieutenant in 1748. He was with the Duke of Cumberland, as an aide, in the German campaign , and served with Amherst and Wolfe in America. He was governor of Canada from 1772 to 1781, though Burgoyne succeeded him as military leader in 1777, when he received the order of knighthood. In 1781, he succeeded Sir Henry Clinton as commander-in-chief of the British army in America. He was made governor of Quebec, Nova Scoria and New Brunswick, in 1786,in which year, as a reward for long and faithful service, he was raised to the peerage, being created Baron Dorchester, and from that year until 1796, he was governor of British North America, his administration being marked by mildness and justice. He was succeeded in his title and estate by his eldest son Thomas. As Mr. Lossing very justly remarks : " It is due to his memory to say, that he doubtless was opposed to the employment of savages against the Americans." He was certainly a very humane man. as his great kindness to all American prisoners proves. His paroling and taking care of the Americans captured by him when he defeated Montgomery and Arnold at Quebec, is but one of many instances of the same character. In fact, Gen. Carleton was one of the best generals, as regards both kindness and justice, that the British Government: ever had in America. He was truly a great and a wise man. Gen. Carleton was on warm terms of friendship with Joseph Brant, and I have in my possession letters from Carleton to Brant to prove this statement-a fact which in itself shows that Brant could not have been the "monster" that he has been painted.
Pleased to appoint Ensign William Doyle(1)of the 24th Regt, To be Lieut. in the room of Lieut. Robert Pennington deceased. No Adjutant, Quarter
(1) The copy of the British army list, which is in the Astor Library and consists of ninety folio volumes (stilted), has been carefully and extensively corrected by the pen of some former owner, probably a military man of high rank, as the bookplate shows. By this it appears that William Doyle became ensign. July 16, 1774, and lieutenant, in place of Pennington deceased, Nov. 27th, 1776, Doyle was wounded at Bemis Heights, Oct. 7, 1777 and being afterward captured with Burgoyne, his signature appears attached to the Cambridge Parole. He seems to have lived to a good age, since we find that he became a lieutenant general, Aug. l2th, 1819. It is quite possible that Doyle was with St. Leger until the latter's retreat into Canada, when he left him to join Burgoyne. We know that it was the intention of Sir John Johnson to rejoin the British army at Saratoga after St. Leger's defeat (Col. Claus to Minister Knox), though for some reason which does not appear, he failed to do so. It is a very common thing, for an officer to be detached from his regiment on staff duty. Thus Captain Edward Foy of the Royal Artillery (mentioned in the text), was at this time on detached service as Sir Guy Carleton's deputy adjutant general. Captain Arthur James Pomeroy of the 1st Dragoons (also mentioned in the text) was on detached service as an aide to Gen. Phillips, though his regiment was not in Canada, nor America during the Revolutionary war. Other familiar illustrations of this with Burgoyne, were Major Kingston, Burgoyne's adjutant general, a brevet major and captain of invalids in Ireland , Sir Francis Clerke, Burgoyne's secretary, a lieutenant in the 3d Foot Guards which gave him the army rank of captain, owing to the double rank which formerly obtained in the Guards; and Richard Rich Wilford, one of Burgoyne's aides, was a lieutenant in the 2d or Queen's Royal Regiment. A military friend, however, does not take this view, and under date of Jan. 22, 1882, writes to me as follows: "I do not believe that William Doyle was with St. Leger, at all, whether he was or not, the 24th was not, as that was the only British regiment that Burgoyne had the whole of with him. For this statement, see Lord George Germaine's letter to Sir Guy Carleton of March 26, 1777, printed in The State of the Expedition, appendix viii. At the foot of the page one would suppose that the 8th and 24th Regiments did not accompany Burgoyne, and were expressly ordered out of or to be exempted from Burgoyne's command. This is true of the 8th but not of the 24th and the error is in the brackets including more than the words '(except of the 8th Regiment).' The order or letter should have been punctuated thus:
(It is likewise his Majesty's pleasure that you put under the command of Lieutenant General Burgoyne
The grenadiers and light infantry of the army (except of the 8th regiment) and the 24th regiment as the advanced corps under the command of Brigadier General Fraser.' Fraser had all the light
Master, or Surgeons Mate doing duty as Such in any Regt is to be returned a Volunteer. A bounty having been granted by the London Merchts to Such Soldiers, or Saylors as may have been wounded, and to the Widows ot such of either as have been kill'd in the Service In America, the Pay Master of Regiments, & Captain Shanks
companies i. e. the light infantry and grenadiers, of all the British regiments in Canada except of the 8th or King's Regiment. Besides the light companies as above, Fraser had in his brigade, his own regiment, the 24th, he being its lieut. colonel. The 300 men spoken of higher up on page viii, appendix of the State of the Expedition, were drawn from the 6 regiments of the 1st and 2d Brigades as stated at the foot of that page. Fraser's Brigade was not numbered, but was known as the Light Brigade, and always led. Besides the above authority, page ix of the appendix, State of the Expedition, shows exactly what regular British troops St. Leger had, we know that the 24th was with Burgoyne and that no part of it was with St. Leger, except possibly a single officer might have been on detached service, as it is called, on St. Leger's Staff, St. Leger then being an acting brigadier. Of this, however, I see no evidence whatever, and the reference to William Doyle in Sir John's Orderly Book, does not furnish the least possible authority for any belief that Doyle was with St. Leger. That reference is an order from Sir Guy Carleton, the British commander-in-chief in Canada, issued Dec. 12th, 1776, more than two months before Lord George Germaine issued in London his order to form St. Leger's expedition, as Lord George's letter of March 26th, 1777, to Sir Guy contained that order. The troops in Canada were then lying in winter Quarters, the 34th, St. Leger's Regiment, being at Quebec, and Sir John Johnson's being at La Chine, La Point Clair and St. Ann [Lamb's American War, p. 112]. The order of Dec. 12th, in Sir John's Orderly Book is, as you see, signed by Sir Guy's deputy adjutant general and is transmitted through the headquarters of Major General Phillips, and being the order of a superior authority and applying to all the troops in Canada, Sir John's Regiment was as much amenable to it, as any and all other regiments serving in Canada under Sir Guy were, and hence it appears in his Orderly Book. Sir John Johnson's Regiment did not leave its winter quarters at La Chine (that being the regimental headquarters) till June 21, 1777, when it started on St. Leger's Expedition with fourteen days rations. [Sir John's Orderly Book]. The expression, with fourteen days rations, means that so many rations had been issued to the regiment's possession by the commissary, the rest of the stores and provisions for the expedition remaining in the hands of the commissary for future issues.
From all the above and many other authorities, but the above will suffice, I know that the 24th was not with St. Leger at all, and believe that Doyle was not with him, though if he was detached on staff duty with St. Leger that would afford no sort of ground for supposing that any of the rest of the 24th was with St. Leger."
Pennington was commissioned lieutenant, Feb. 10th, 1770.
are desired to transmit to Mr. Dunn Receiver
General of the Province a list of the Soldiers and Saylors who have been kill'd
or wounded in the course of the Campaign.(1)Ten Dollars will be paid to the
latter, not having already received it, & Five Pounds to the Widows of
the former, Producing Certificates from the Officer Under whose Command their
Husbands Respectively Served.
Sign'd E. Foy
Dept. Adt. General.
By order of Major Genl Philips
Signed Arr. JAMS. POMEROY
(1) I have searched in vain among the archives of the British museum and the files of the newspapers yet preserved in London, to find the precise date and the exact words in which this "bounty" (or more properly, pension) was given by the "London merchants." Force's archives also are silent. The only items which are at all germane to the subject are the following extracts. The first, from the Annual Register for July 18th, 1776, is as follows :
"In a letter, lately received by the committee at the London Tavern, appointed to conduct the voluntary contributions in favor of the soldiers serving in North America, their wives and children, from the officers appointed by General Howe to conduct it on the spot, is the following paragraph: 'This Board, as well as the officers and soldiers in general, are sensible of the great attention which their countrymen have shown them on this occasion, and we flatter ourselves that the future operations of the army, in reducing: the deluded inhabitants of this country to a just sense of their duty, will merit their approbation. The Society may be assured that the Board will exert themselves to render their benevolent designs as beneficial as possible, and would suggest that there should be sent to them soap, leather, combs, leggings, etc.' "
This, also, from the Gentleman's Magazine, for December, 1776 : "On Nov. 22d, the magistrates of Whitehaven issued an order offering two guineas bounty for every able sailor that should enter voluntarily, with the proper officer, there to serve the Royal Navy, in which they were followed by the gentlemen of the town, so that every sailor, who enters there, will receive £9 4s. The corporation of Newcastle have offered the same bounty with that of Whitehaven."
And again, from the Middlesex Journal, London, Nov. 23, 1776: "Canterbury, Nov. 20th, a subscription is set on foot at Tolpstone, by the mayor and principal inhabitants of that town,
1777 JAN 1st. P. Ireland. C. Scotland. For Guard to Morrow, 1 Sergt & 6 Prvt. The two Companys of the Kings Royal Regt of New York Cantoon'd at Lachine to parade tomorrow morning opposite to Mr. Henis [i. e. his plantation] at Seven o'clock, fully accouter'd- The Guard to Mount at 7 o'Clock.
-5th. P. Patrick. C.Daly. For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt, & 6 Privts. Ens Byrne, Officer of the Day.
-6th. P. Ireland. C. Cromarthy. For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 6 Prvts. Lieut Singleton, Officer of the Day.
-7th. P. Gray. C. Evalick. For Guard to Morrow 1Sergt & 6 Prvts. Ens Crothers, Officer of the Day.
-8th. P. Berwick. C. Tweed. For Guard to Morrow 1 S & 6 P. Ens Crawford Officer of the Day.
whereby a reward of 40 shillings is offered to every able bodied seaman, and 20 shillings for every ordinary seaman over and above his Majesty's bounty, to such inhabitants of the said town as shall voluntarily enter themselves into his Majesty's navy." In Force's American Archives,. 4th Series, vol. iv, p. 343, there is a Proclamation by the King, "given at our court of St. James, Jan. 3d, 1776, for encouraging seamen to enter themselves on board his Majesty's ships of war," and also (Force's American Archives, 4th series, vol. iv, p. 1468) an "order in council at the court of St. James, 28th Feb., 1776," to the same effect, but have little or no bearing on this particular inquiry.
-l0th. P. London. C. Weymouth. For Guard to Morrow
1 S & 6 Privates. Ens Byrns, officer of the Day.
-11th. P. New York. C. Albany. For Guard to Morrow 1 S 6c 6 men. Ens. Crothers, officer of the Day.
-12th P. Edinburgh. C. Lieth, For Guard to Morrow 1 S & 6 men. Ens Crawford, officer of the Day.
-13th. P. York. C. Boston. For Guard to Morrow 1 S & 6 P men. Lieut Singleton, officer of the day.
-14th. P. Philadelphia. C. Charlestown. For Guard to Morrow, i S & 6 P men. Ens. Byrns officer of the Day.
-15th. P. Dublin. C. Belfast. For Guard to Morrow, 1 S & 6 P men. Ens Crothers, officer of the Day.
-9th. P. Tain. C. Dingwall. For Guard to Morrow 1 S & 6 P. Lieut. Singleton,(1) Officer of the day.
(1) George Singleton of Montreal. This officer was a lieutenant in Captain Stephen Watt's company, and being wounded in the battle of Oriskany, and carried back into the Indian camp near Fort Stanwx, was taken prisoner by Col. Willett in his sortie from that Fort, while the action was still in progress. Col. Claus to Secretary Knox, N. Y. Col. Doc. Speaking of this sally, Willett, in his Narrative says: "Several prisoners were brought into the Fort, among whom was a Mr. Singleton, a Lieutenant of the Light infant company of Sir John Johnson's regiment. A few Indians and some troops were found dead in their camps, and, no doubt, several were killed in crossing the river. Upon the whole, the enterprise was successful beyond Col. Willett's most sanguine hopes." We are sorry, however, for the fair fame of this officer, that he should have been guilty of an act of shameful cruelty. Moses Younglove, a surgeon of Gen. Herkimer's brigade of militia, who was taken prisoner by St. Leger, and who, moreover, until his decease at Hudson, N. Y., about 1825, was a gentleman of high standing, is authority for the statement that "Lieutenant Singleton, of Sir John Johnson's regiment, being wounded, entreated the savages to kill the prisoners,
-16th. P. Tain. C. Dingwall. For Guard to Morrow
1 S & 6 P men. Ens Crawfbrd, officer of the Day.
-l7th P. Armagh. C. Galloway. For Guard to Morrow 1 S & 6 P men. Lieut. Singleton, officer of the Day.
-18th. P. Thurso. C. Week. For Guard to Morrow, 1 S & 6 P men. Ens Byrns, officer of the Day.
-19th. P. Glasgow. C. Dumbarton. For Guard to Morrow 1 S & 6 P men. Ens Crothers, officer of the Day.
-20th. P. Tillibody. C. Sterling. For Guard to Morrow 1 S & 6 men. Ens Crawford, officer of the Day.
-21 ist. P. Perth. C. Lieth For Guard to Morrow, 1S & 6 P men. Lieut. Singleton, officer of the Day.
-22d. P. York, C. Cadrous. For Guard to Morrow 1S & 6 men. Ens Byrns, officer of the Day.
which they accordingly did, as nigh as this deponent can judge, about six or seven." The original of this affidavit by Younglove, is still in the office of the Secretary of State, Albany, N. Y. General de Peyster and Mr. Edward F. de Lancey, have thought that Willett was wrong in his statement (see quotations from the Narrative, in the "Introduction " to the Orderly Book, and Appendix No. in) that Sir John Johnson was in his camp when he made the sortie, and in proof of this they, among other things, refer to St. Leger's account of occurrences at Fort Stanwix," cited by Burgoyne in his defence, in which the writer asserts that Sir John was engaged in the action at Oriskany. Willett's authority, however, for his statement, was this same Lieut. Singleton. In a letter which Willett wrote a few days after the sortie, to a Hartford newspaper, dated at the German Flats, on 11th of August, he says: "One of the prisoners is a Mr. George Singleton, of Montreal, a lieutenant in Captain Watt's company. Mr. Singleton told me that. Sir John Johnson was with him when
-23d. P. Boston. C. Albany. For Guard to Morrow
1 S & 6 P men. Ens Crothers officer of the Day.
-24th. P. Fraser. C. Gordon. For Guard to Morrow 1 S & 6 men. Ens Crawford officer of the Day. It is the Commanding officers orders, That the Comps Lying at Upper Lachine Do Duty in Conjunction with the Two Comps of the King's Royal Regt. of New York of Lower Lachine.
-25th. P. Montreal. C. Quebec. For Guard to Morrow 1 S & 6 men. Lieut Singleton, officer of the Day.
-26th. P. La Prairie. C. Lachine. For Guard to Morrow 1 Sert & 6 P men. Ens Byrns, officer of the Day.
-27th. P. Point Clair. C. Inverness. For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 6 P men. Ens Crothers, officer of the Day.
-28th. P. London. C. Barnet. For Guard to Morrow 1 Serg. & 6 P. Ens Crawford, officer of the Day.
-29th. P. Inverness. C. Nairn. For Guard to Morrow, 1 Sergt & 7 men. Lieut. Singleton, Officer of the Day.
we attacked their camp, and that he thinks he ran to the river." But both statements may be correct; and as Singleton, who had most certainly been in the engagement at Oriskany, was carried back to the camp wounded while the fight was still; going on, so Sir John may also have returned to the camp for some purpose at the same time. Indeed, it is not impossible to reconcile both views, and have each one entirely consistent with the true facts of the case.
-30th. P. Dunkeld. C. Perth. For Guard to Morrow,
1 Sergt & 7 men. Ens Byrne, officer of the dav.
-31st/ P. Burk. C. Patrick. For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 7 men. Ens Crothers officer of the Day.
1777 February 1st P. New York. C. Albany. For Guard to Morrow 1 S & 7 Men. Ens Crawford, officer of the Day.
-2d. P. Fort Hunter.(1) C. Johnstown. For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 7 men. Lieut. Singleton, officer of the Day.
-3d. P. Tower C. St. James. For Guard to Morrow, 1 Sergt & 7 Men Ens Byrnes. Officer of the Day.
-4th. P. Norwich. C. Norfolk. Ens Crothers, Officer of the Day.
-5th. P. Invenshire. C. Inveraw. Guard|
(1) Fort Hunter (Indian name, Dyiondaroga) now in Montgomery Co., N. Y., was built at the mouth of the Schoharie-kill during the French and Indian war, on the site of the Lower Castle of the Mohawks, which was, at this time, the most considerable town of that nation. It was scarcely a place of defence being, in fact, only a wooden building palisadoed, within which, besides the barracks, were some thirty cabins of the Mohawk Indians. There was a house at each curtain, and the cannon at each bastion, were from seven to nine pounders. It had no ditch, and only a large swingdoor at its entrance. The palisades enclosed an edifice, called Queen Anne's chapel, to which a parsonage, built of stone, was attached. The old fort was torn down at the beginning of the revolution, but it was afterward partially restored and often garrisoned. " The chapel," says Lossing, "was demolished in 1820, to make room for the Erie canal." After the confiscation of the property of Sir John Johnson, the furniture of Johnson Hall was sold at auction at Fort Hunter. When Mr. Lossing visited the place, the parsonage was still standing in the town of Florida, half a mile below the Schoharie creek, and a few rods south of the canal.
To Morrow, 1 Sergt & 6 Men. For Ens Crawford Officer of the Day.
-6th. P. Tryon. C. Dunmore. For Guard to Morrow, 1 Sergt &
7 Men. Lieut. Singleton officer of the Day. It is Majr Grays ord's that Patr
McDonell of Capt Dalys Corny & Dan'll Campbell of the Colls Compy be appointed
Corp'ls in his Compy.
-7th. P. Dalwhinnie. C. Dulnacardock. For Guard to Morrow, 1 Sergt. & 1 Corp. & 6 Men. Ens Byrns, officer of the Day.
-8th. P. Bristol. C. Barth. For Guard To Morrow, 1 Sergt & 6 Men. Ens Crothers Officer of the Day.
-9th. P. York. C. Albany. For Guard To Morrow, 1 Sergt 1Corpi & 7 Men.
-10th. P. Schanactdy. C. Trypp's(1), hill. For Guard To Morrow, 1 Sergt, 1 Corpl & 7 Men. Lieut Singleton, Officer of the Day.
11th. P. Gilbart. C. Tice. For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt. 1 Corpl. & 7 Men. Ens
Byrns, officer of the Day.
-12th. P. Mayneld C. Sachandaga.(2) For
(1) Tribe's Hill, situated 20 miles west of Schenectady on the eastern extremity of the Caughnawaga flats, opposite Fort Hunter or the site of the "Lower Mohawk castle." It was named after one of the different tribes or families of the Mohawk nation which dwelt upon it; but whether it was the Bear, Turtle or Wolf tribe is uncertain. It was first settled by families from Albany in l725. Rev. John Taylor, who visited the Hill while on a missionary tour in 1802, mentions as worthy of note, that on its top there was an apple tree which produced apples without core or seeds. From its top a fine view is obtained of a few hundred acres of excellent meadow which was formerly the seat of "King Hendrick," the famous sachem of the Mohawks. N. Y. Col. Doc., Jeptba R. Simms to the author.
(2) The Sacandaga river one of the two chief tributary streams that flow into the
Guard To Morrow, 1Sergt, 1 Corpl. & 7 Men.
Ens. Crothers, Officer of the Day.
-13th. P. Fort Stanwix. C. Oswego. For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt. 1 Corpl, & 7 Men. Ens Crawford Officer of the Day.
-14th. P. Niagara. C. Fort Dimber
Hudson. The Sacandaga, which enters the Hudson at Luzerne, was the objective point with Sir John Johnson in his raids from Canada into the Mohawk Valley. His course, on these occasions, was down Lake Champlain to Bulwagga bay on that lake; and thence to Schroon Lake, and "Crane Mountain," in Warren Co., N. Y., whence there was a direct trail to the Sacandaga River. In this connection, the following letter to Gen. de Peyster is in point.
JERSEY CITY HEIGHTS, Jan. 8, 1880.
DEAR SIR--In reply to your letter asking for some particulars in regard to Crane Mountain in connection with Sir John Johnsons' route from Bulwagga Bay in Lake Champlain to Cherry Valley, I would say that my attention was first called to it in the fall of 1852, while on a deer stalking expedition in the Adirondacks, by an old hunter, who had often been surprised at such evidences of careful military work in places where he supposed white feet had never trodden until a comparatively recent date. A careful examination was thereupon undertaken by me, resulting in the conclusion that Johnson's raid either was by no means so precipitate as has hitherto been believed, or else that he had with him a skilled engineer with men under him who were accustomed to work with great celerity.
Although the road is now overgrown with bushes and scrub timber, yet a very little observation reveals a well made corduroy road underneath (still in excellent preservation) with the gap in the forest where the primeval trees were cut down for the road. This road, coming down from the valley of the Bouquet and Schroon rivers, meets the base of Crane Mountain at its north-western side, and following around the base of the mountain leaves it on its south-eastern point, and goes off in a well defined trail to the Sacandaga. Thence crossing that stream it is lost in the forest in a bee line to the Fish House, Johnstown, and the Cherry Valley settlement.
It is, I may remark here, a great mistake to imagine that the whites were the first to know this region--the truth being that all this wilderness was as well known to the Iroquois, not to speak of previous races, as one's own library is to its owner. Crane Mountain at the present time (not so much from its height, though it is a high mountain, as from its peculiar position in the Adirondack chain), can be seen from any direction within a radius of seventy miles. Crane Mountain was of course, as prominent a landmark in 1780, as it is now; and in descending from the valley of the Schroon, it was undoubtedly seen and seized upon as a point to make for, on Johnson's way to the Sacandaga. Indeed, it has been made the base of the trigonometrical survey of the northern section of New York State. I am sincerely rejoiced that Sir John Johnson has at length found so able a defender as yourself, and I remain, Yours cordially, Wm. L. Stone.
[Dummer(1) ?] For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt. 1Corpl,
& 7 Men. Lieut. Singleton officer of the Day.
-15th. P. Fort Erie. C. Detroit. For Guard to Morrow, 1 Sergt, 1 Corpi, and 7 Men. Ens Byrns Officer of the Day.
-16th. P. St. Anns (2). C. Point Clair. For Guard To Morrow, 1 Sergt, 1 Corpl, & 9 Men. Ens Crothers Officer of the Day.
-17th. P. La Chine. C. Montreal. For Guard To Morrow 1 Sergt, 1 Corpi & 9 Men. Lieut. Singleton, Officer uf the Day.
-18th. P. La Prairie. C. Long Ile(3). For Guard To Morrow, 1 Sergt 1Corpl. & 9 Men. Ens Byrns, Officer of The Day.
-17th. [Sic] P. Eden. C. Adam. For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & Eight men. Ens Crawford Officer of the Day. It is the Commanding Officer's Orders that the Guard Shall Consist of one Sergt, & Elight private Men for the future, & be Removed from here to Lower
(1) This fort is frequently spoken of in the early border wars. It was first built in 1723, and was situated on the Connecticut river on the New Hampshire side, forty miles below Charlestown, or Number Four.
(2) Lower Canada was originally divided into four districts, viz.: Montreal, Three Rivers, Quebec and Gaspe, in the second of which lay St. Anne. The Seigniory of St. Anne, three quarters of a league wide, by two and a half leagues in length, and granted to M. Lanaudiere, Oct. 29th, 1672, is situated on the south bank of the St. Lawrence, "a little nearer to Montreal than to Quebec. On the east side of the river St. Anne, and near the St. Lawrence, is the village of St. Anne, a pretty little hamlet, but having no particular history or traditions.
(3) Longueil, a parish or town on the right or south bank of the St. Lawrence, three miles from Montreal, was granted to the Sieur Charles Le Moine de Longueil (father of Iberville and Bienville, and the successor of M. de Vaudreuil in the government of Canada), Nov. 3d, 1672. Near the village, was the ancient Fore of Longueil (built by Baron de Longueil), one of the many barriers against
La chine Where the King's Stores Are, they will
keep two Sentries by Day & two by Night, the One over the Prisoners, &
the Other at the Kings Stores.
-18th. [Sic] P. Howe. C. Fraser(1). For Guard to Morrow, 1 Sergt. & Eight Men. Lieut. Singleton, Officer of the Day. It is the Commanding Officers Orders that the Officer of the Day Visit the Guard twice Every Day &; Make a Report to him of What Ever happens Relative to the Service.
-19th. P. Johnson. C. Grav. For Guard To Morrow 1 Sergt. & 8 Men. Ens Byrns, Officer of the Day.
-20th. P. Norwich. C. London. For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt, and 8 Men. Ens Crothers, Officer of the Day.
-21st. P. Phillips. C. Fraser. For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt. & Men. Ens Crawford, Officer of the Day. It is The Commanding officer's Orders that
the Iroquois, and a military center during all of the French, English and American wars. Its site is now covered by a well built church. On landing in the village from the ferry boat on which he has crossed the St. Lawrence from Montreal, the tourist feels as if he had been suddenly transported into some ancient, medieval town of France, to which, moreover, had been added all the peculiarities of an old Canadian town; neat as a pin; grass in the streets and in the court yards of the quaint adobe cottages; and the people either going quietly about their business, or, apparently in a "brown study", standing behind the lower half of their doors, the upper half thrown open, staring into vacancy. Longueil, formerly in the county of Kent, is now the chief town of the county of Chambly, and is the summer residence of many Montrealers, some of whom have handsome dwellings on the outskirts of the town. Its present population is 2, 083.
(2) Gen. Simon Fraser. For a sketch of this gallant officer the reader is referred to Stone's Burgoyne' Campaign, and Gen. Rogers's Hadden's Journal.
the two Comp'ys Quartered here March to Point
Clair To Morrow Morning at 7 O'Clock. The Non Commissiend Officers will be
Very Carefull That The Men Are Clean & their Armes in Good Order.
-22d. P. Whymendham. C. Attleburrough. For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt. & 10 Men. Lieut. Singleton, Officer of the Day.
-23d. P. Thotford. C. New Market. For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt. & 10 Men. Ensign Byrns Officer of the Day.
-24th. P. Strattford. C. Bow Bridge. For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt. & 10 Men. Ens Crothers Officer of the Day.
-25th. P. Norfolk. C. Suffolk. For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Men. Ens Crawford, officer of the Day.
-26th. P. Essex. C. Kent. For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 10 men. Lieut. Singleton, Officer of the Day.
27th. P. Walker. C. Crothers. For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt. & 10 men. Ens. Byrns officer of the day.
-28th. P. Daly. C Watts. For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 10 men. Ens Crothers Officer of the Day.
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