History From America's Most Famous Valleys
The Orderly Book of Sir John Johnson
During the Oriskany Campaign
Annotated by Wm. L. Stone
With an Historical Introduction illustrating the Life of Johnson by J. Watts De Peyster, and Some Tracings from the Foot-Prints of the Tories, or Loyalists in America by T. R. Myers.
Joel Munsell, 1882
BUCK ISLAND (1).
1777, July 8th. P. Burgoyne. C. Phillips.
(1) Buck's or Carleton Island, called by the French Isle aux Chevreulls, from the fact that the deer frequented it, as it had good pasturage. In passing on the steamboat down the St. Lawrence river from Cape Vincent, the tourist will observe a number of stacks of old brick: chimneys standing near the shore on the left side, which are upon " Buck's Island." The Inhabitants near it have always affected a great mystery in regard to the origin of these fortifications, but, in truth, there is no mystery about them. Bouchette, in his History of Canada^ published in 1815, states, that Carleton Island was converted into a large magazine or depot for military supplies and general rendezvous in 1774-75 by the British government in anticipation of trouble with her American colonies. "We should infer, even if Rochefoucault de Liancourt, in his travels, did not say so expressly, that the name of the island was changed to Carleton in honor of that general who was then in command of Canada. The stacks of chimneys still to be seen are probably the remains of those "ovens" to which the Orderly Book refers, in which the bread for the troops was baked. The English government reserved this island in its sale to Macomb, and, in 1796, a corporal and three men were in charge. The island, however, had evidently been fortified by the French many years before 1774, the time spoken of by Bouchette, for Count Frontenac mentions it as one of his stopping places, in 1696, in his expedition against the Onondagas, at which time, Captain du Luth was left on the island with a garrison of forty men, masons, etc., with orders to "complete the fort." Dr. Hough, in his History of Jefferson County, gives the following interesting account of the present appearance of the ruins. "The ruins of Fort Carteton, on 'Carleton' or 'Buck Island,'are the most interesting relics of the olden time within the county of Jefferson. The island, when first observed by our settlers, was partly cleared. It has an undulating surface, Is composed of Trenton limestone, and is very fertile. The surface near its head, where the fort Is located, rises by an easy grade to a spacious plane fifty feet above the river (St. Lawrence) which is precipitous in front and overlooks a small palisade but
For Guard Ens Crawford. 1 S. 1 C. 1 D. &
16 P. the Batteaux to be taken up to the store to morrow morning at 4 o'clock
and Unloaded, & such as wants repairing to be drawn up; the Taylors of
the Regt begin to work to morrow morning to compleat the mens cloathing.
-9th. P. Frazer. C. Powel. Lieut Burnet of the Kings Regt to act as Adgt to the Division till further orders. A return of the strength of each corps to be given in at twelve o'clock. Capt Potts will direct liquor to be given to the troops
little elevated above the water, and affords
on each side of the island, a safe and ample cove for the anchorage of boats.
The area under the hill was completely protected by the works on the heights
above, and from its great fertility afforded an abundance of culinary vegetables
for the garrison. Traces occur, showing that cannon were planted on conspicuous
points, and the trace of a submerged wharf is still seen, as are also wrecks
of vessels in the bottom of the river adjacent. In the rear of the works may
be seen the cemetery, but time has defaced the inscriptions upon the headstones
except on one grave, which has the following ;
D. 23 Fy., 1792."
Forty years ago carved oaken planks were standing at many of the graves. Several chimneys are seen outside of the entrenchments, and on the plain in front of the fort, about a dozen still stand within the works which are built of stone in a permanent and massive manner, the flags being very small and the bases enlarged and well founded. Near the brow of the hill is a circular well about ten feet in diameter, and supposed to be as deep, at least, as the level of the river; but being partly filled with rubbish, this cannot be determined. Here are also excavations supposed to be for magazines. The plan of the fort shows it to have been after Vauban, and forms three-eighths of a circle of about 800 feet diameter, the abrupt face of the hill, which was doubtless protected by a stockade, not requiring these defences which were furnished to the rear. The ditch is excavated in rock, four feet deep and twenty-two feet wide. The covert way is twenty-four feet wide; the counterscarp vertical , the outer parapet four feet high, and the glacis formed of material taken from the ditch. The rampart within the ditch was of earth, and is very much dilapidated, ravelins were made before each reentered angle; and at the alternate salient angles, bastions were so placed as to command the fort at its various approaches very effectually. No knowledge is derived from settlers of the character or the number of the enclosed buildings, except that a range of wooden blockhouses, within the entrenchment, was occupied by a corporal's guard and a few invalids. The premises had fallen into decay, and were entirely without defensive works. A few iron cannon were lying on the beach, or under the water near the shore; and the gates had
when at work as he shall think proper according
to the service they perform. REGL. ORDERS. Lt. McDonell, 1 8. 1 C. 1 D. &
16 P. .
-l0th. GENL ORDERS, by Brigadier Genl St. Leger. Lt. Colonel St. Leger is appointed to act as Brigadier Genl; Chevelier St. Oaris ap-pointed Lt. in Capt. Buvilie's [Rouville's] Compy of Canadians. Two Subalterns and 50 men to attend the Deputy Qr Master General to Clear Ground sufficient to exercise the army; the party
been robbed of their hinges for the iron; which had been pawned by the soldiers. The premises have at all times furnished a great abundance of relics, among which were coins, buttons, etc., whose inscriptions and devices, without exception indicate an English origin, and a period not earlier than the French war. The figures ' 34,' ' 22,' ' 29,' ' 84,' ' 21,' ' 31,' etc., which occur on the buttons found, often accompanied by the device of the thistle, anchor, crown, etc., doubtless designate the regiments to which their wearers belonged. This station was used by the English during and after the Revolution and garrisoned by invalid troops. Having Carefully examined every author we have been unable to ascertain the precise time of the erection of this fort. It certainly did not exist before 1758 [Dr. Hough is not speaking of the fort built by Frontenac but of the more modern one] as it does not occur in any of the list of stations previous to that period , but a MS. is preserved among the Paris documents in the archives of the State at Albany, that throws some light upon the subject. From this it appears that, in November, 1758, the Marquis de Vaudreuil, at that time, governor of Canada, had drawn up a paper on the defences of that country, which was submitted to the Marquis de Montcalm for his revision, and met with his entire approval. He proposed to send 1,500 men to defend the approaches of Canada, on the side of Lake Ontario, by the erection of a post at the head of the St. Lawrence and laid out after the plans of M. de Fonteloy, who was to be sent for that purpose. The station, thus chosen and fortified, would, at, the same time, become the head of the frontier and an entrepot for every military operation in that quarter, instead of Frontenac, which can never be regarded as such, as the English might enter the St. Lawrence without exposing themselves, or giving any knowledge of their passage.' The place was to be made susceptible of defence by an army and have magazines for stores and barracks for the lodgment of troops in the winter. It was intended that the proposed work should be adequate with those lower down for the defence of the latter, and it was designed to put in command an active, disinterested and capable man to accelerate the work and render the operation complete. Such a man the chevalier was considered to be, and he was accordingly named as the person
to be furnished with proper Utensils for that
purpose. The Kings Regt. and the 34th form one Corps [and] will encamp on
the right. The Hessian Chasseurs on the Left, and the R. R. of New York in
the center, Lt. Collerten will choose out the proposed ground on the Right
of the Army for his party of Artillery and will begin Immediately to prepare
Bark Huts for His Ammunition. The Irregulars will be arranged by the Deputy
Qr Master Genl. Colonel Close [Col. Daniel Claus] will take ground for the
Signed Wm Crofts, Lt 34th Regt.
to have the chief direction and command of the work. Such are the outlines of the plan; and the means within our reach have not enabled us to learn whether or not they were carried out to the extent contemplated at that time. No one can stand upon the spot occupied by this ruin and survey its natural advantages for defence, the ample bay for shipping which it overlooks, and the complete command of the channel which it affords without being convinced that its site was admirably chosen, and that, in its selection, the projectors were guided by much discretion.' "
Mr. L. B. Pike, of Saratoga Springs, who takes great interest in such matters, and who, having spent many summers on the St. Lawrence, has made a study of this island, writes to me as follows, under date of Aug.9th, 188l : "Carleton, or Buck's Island is situated about five miles down the St. Lawrence from Light House Point and east of Cape Vincent, and is probably three miles long by half a mile broad. Fort Carleton was at the extreme west end of the island , for, at the present time, there is nothing left of the fort save a few chimneys with their fireplaces, both of which are in a perfect state of preservation, the latter being thirty feet high. The well, which was dug for the use of the garrison inside of the walls through a sandstone rock and which is one hundred and fifty feet deep, is still intact. The fortifications extended from one side of the island to the other, making access to the water easy on either side. The island, which is quite precipitous, is one solid piece of rock having a layer of earth on the top two feet and one-half in depth. This soil is quite fertile and sustains several beautiful farms and orchards. For three-quarters of a mile west of Carleton Island the water is so shoal that, at times, a rowboat can scarcely be taken over it. Very deep water is then met with, and finally another shoal which runs out from the eastward of Wolf Island. The distance between these shoals is about forty rods. The fishing along the shoals for bass and muscalonge [Mr. Pike is the champion fisherman of that region] is the best in this part of the river. 'Wolf Island' [originally called Wolf Island, then Long Island and now again Wolf Island, see Bouchette lies some two miles west
For this Duty Ks Regt 1 L. 16 P.; R. R. N. Y.
1 L. 1 S. 1 C. 34 P. For Guard Ens McKenzie. It is the Commanding officer's
Orders that Jos. Locks & John Laurance be appointed Sergts in Capt Duvan's
Compy; Jacob Shall, Wm. Taylor, Phillip Coach, Corpis in said Compy and be
obeyed as such.
and up the river from Carleton Island. Button Bay on its east end, was undoubtedly the regular camp of the Indians employed in either the French or English Service, perhaps both, for, at the present time, you may pick up stone arrowheads in the water. Three years ago, several feet of the shore of Button Bay was washed away by a strong east wind, disclosing a large Indian burial ground. Here my daughter and Mr. H. M. Livingston of Saratoga Springs found some large Indian spears and innumerable arrowheads, and also some skulls. These skulls, which were encased in mica (the work of the Indians before burial) were even to the teeth as well preserved as if they had been found in a peat bed. At this point a mound was discovered. The skeletons found in it showed that the burials had taken place in a time of peace, as the bodies had been laid in perfect order instead of having been hurriedly piled promiscuously on top of each other. Another circumstance which leads me to suppose this to have been an Indian camp during our early colonial history, is that people have often found here musket barrels, very long, like the old fashioned French fowling-pieces. I send you with this letter a remarkably perfect arrowhead, I found at this place a week since." Carleton Island was also, during the Revolution used as a rendezvous whence General Haldimand was in the habit of sending out scalping-parties to annoy our frontiers. Thus, Col. Daniel Claus in writing from Montreal to Thayendanegea (Brant) under date of March 3d, 1781, says :
"The General [Haldimand] has for some time intended sending a party of about sixty chosen loyalists, under the command of Major Jessup, toward Fort Edward ; this party might join you against Palmerstown [near the present village of Saratoga Springs, N. Y.,] could you ascertain the time and place, which might be nearly done by calculating the time your express would take to come from Carleton Island, your march from thence, and Major Jessup's from Point au Fez, alias Nikadiyooni. * * * Should you upon this adopt the general's offer and opinion, and proceed from Carleton Island to Palmerstown, which place I am sure several of Major Ross's men and others at the island are well acquainted with, I wish you the aid of Providence with all the success imaginable, in which case it will be one of the most essential services you have rendered your king this war, and cannot but by him be noticed and rewarded , your return by Canada will be the shortest and most eligible, and we shall be very happy to see you here." And, again, as a postscript to the same letter, he writes : " P. S. The great advantage of setting out from Carleton Island, is the route, which is so unexpected a one, that there is hardly any doubt but you will surprise them, which is a great
-11th. P. Fort St. Ann.(1) C. Noadwilley. G.
O. Lt. Crofts of the 34th Regt is appointed Major of Brigade for this expedition.
Guards to Mount every morning at 8 o'clock, the Retreat to be at 7 o'clock
in the evening and tattoo at 9 o'clock. An officer of each Corps to attend
for Geni Orders at the Major of Brigades's tent every Day at 12 o'clock. One
Sergt and 8 private men of Captain Buvelles Company of Canadians to parade
to Morrow morning to go to Oswegatchie for Provisions and 4 privates will
parade at the same hour, who will receive further orders from Lt. Rudyard
Engineer. REGTL O. For Guard to morrow, 1 S.1 C. D. 8 P. men. Ens McKenzie
is to do [duty] in Capt McDonell's Compy, Ens Crothers in Major Grays, &
Ens Crawford in Capt Daly's till further orders. The officers commanding compys
to give in their Monthly Return to morrow morning at 6 o'clock and be very
carefull that they are not false. Compy Duty Gd 1 D. 3 P.
-12th. P. Gray. C. Mohock River. His Majesty has been Pleased to appoint Coll. Claus(2)
point gained. Whereas, were you to set out from Canada, there are so many friends, both whites and Indians, to the rebel cause, that you could not well get to the place undiscovered, which would not do so well. D. C."
I am also indebted to Mr. B. B. Burt, of Oswego, N. Y.) for valuable information about this island.
(1) Not to be confounded with Fort Anne in Washington Co., N. Y. The Fort St. Anne here mentioned was situated on the upper portion of the island of Montreal, and was often the object of Iroquois attacks. One of the wards of the city of Montreal still retains the name. (2) Colonel Daniel Claus or Clause as
to be superintendent of the Indian Department
on this expedition; A Sub. of the Day is constantly to remain in Camp who
will see all publick orders executed and to whom all reports of any thing
extraordinary will be made for the information of the Brigadier. All orders
relative to the Soldiers shall be read to them at the Evening Parade by an
officer of the Company. For fatigue to morrow--K's Regt 22 P.; K's R. N. Y.,
1 S. 36 P.; Canadians, 1 S. 12 P. The Kings Regt to Give the Sub. of the Day
the name is sometimes written, was probably a native of the Mohawk valley, where he acquired in early life a knowledge of the Iroquois language, and was in consequence attached as interpreter to the department of General Sir William Johnson, whom he accompanied as lieutenant of rangers in the expedition against Dieskau. In 1756, he was appointed lieutenant in the 60th or Royal American regiment, and continued at Johnstown, or thereabouts, until 1759, when he accompanied the expedition to Niagara, whence he went with the army to Montreal, where he was stationed as superintendent of the Canadian Indians. On the 6th of July, 1761, he was promoted to a captaincy in the 60th but went on half-pay in 1763, on the reduction of his regiment. Haying returned to Fort Johnson, he continued to act as one of Sir William's deputies, and in 1766, assisted at the treaty concluded with Pontiac at Lake Ontario. In 1767, he went back to Canada, but did not remain there, for having married one of the daughters of Sir William Johnson, by whom he was greatly beloved, he resided near Johnstown until the breaking out of the Revolution, when he retired to Canada. He visited England with Grant in 1776, and arrived in Quebec, 1st June, 1777, with a commission as deputy superintendent of, and with instructions to bring the Indians to cooperate with the British army in the campaign of that year. He accordingly accompanied those tribes in the expedition against Fort Stanwix under Brigadier General St. Leger, who commended his exertions on that occasion. Col. Claus, however, did not, by any means reciprocate these sentiments of St Leger. In a letter, dated at Montreal, Oct. l6th, 1777, he complains bitterly of the obstacles which had been thrown in his way in assembling and equipping with arms and vermillion the Indians under his command, and plainly hints that the failure of the expedition against Fort Stanwix was due to the lack of judgment on the part of its commanding general. "The Missisagues and Six Nations," he writes, "St. Leger intended should accompany him in an alert [i. e., a scouting party] to Fort Stanwix by a short cut through the woods, from a place called Salmon creek on Lake Ontario, about twenty miles from Oswego, in order to surprise the garrison and take it with small arms. Between sixty and seventy leagues from Montreal my reconnoitering party returned and met me with five prisoners. I immediately forwarded the prisoners to the Brigadier [St. Leger] who was about fifteen leagues in our rear. * *
-13th. P. Carleton. C. McClain [McLean], The state of provisions at this post to be given by the D. Commissary general as soon as possible this day [to] the Brigadier-no bisquet to be delivered but by his particular orders, or small barrels of pork to be broke open; no arrears of provisions to be reed at this post; such persons as may have any rations due to them to this day and properly certified to the D. C. General may receive the value of them in cash, the usual drawback being made at 6 1/2 pds. ration, or a certificate from him that such Rations are due, which will
On St. Leger's arrival within a few leagues of Buck Island, he sent for me, and talking over the intelligence the rebel prisoners gave, he owned that if they intended to defend themselves in that fort, our artillery was not sufficient to take it. * * * * I told him that having examined them separately they agreed in their story. And here the Brigadier [St. Leger] had still an opportunity and time of sending for a better train of artillery and waiting for the junction of the Chasseurs, which must have secured us success, as every one will allow. However, he was still full of his alert [the scout] making but little of the prisoners' intelligence. On his arrival at Buck Island the 8th July, he put me in orders as superintendent of the expedition and empowered me to act to the best of my judgment for his Majesty's service in the management of the Indians on the expedition as well as what regarded their equipments, presents, etc., he being an entire stranger thereto. There was then a vessel at the island which had some Indian goods on board, which Col. Butler had procured for the expedition but upon examination I found that almost every one of the above articles I demanded at Montreal were deficient and a mere impossibility to procure them at Buck Island had I not luckily provided some of those articles before I left Montreal, at my own risque, and with difficulty. Brigadier St. Leger found out thirty stands of arms in the artillery store at Swegachy and I added all my eloquence to satisfy the Indians about the rest." Col. Claus consequently found himself finally greatly out of pocket for sums advanced by himself for the Indian expenses of the expedition ; and Carleton putting off payment on various pretexts, he was obliged to go to Montreal to arrange matters with the people from whom he had obtained the Indian goods. " Such like freques and jealousies," he says, "I am afraid have been rather hurtful to our northern operations last campaign." After peace was declared, he went to England to obtain some remuneration for his losses, as his name had been included in the outlawry act, and his property confiscated. He died at Cardiff, "Wales, in the latter part of 1787. His wife survived him thirteen years and died in Canada in 1801. His son succeeded him as deputy superintendent of Indian affairs in Canada. Col. Claus's early and long connection with the Indian departments as interpreter rendered
be delivered from the Kings Stores at a more convenient time; no person to draw more than one ration pr day viz: 1 1/2lb of flour, 1 1/2 of Beef or 10 oz. of pork, & such troops as choose to draw one pound of flour pr. day shall receive from the D. Q. master General the value weekly of the remainder at li Ibs. ; all public store[s] not immediately pertaining to any particular corps to be put in charge of the Detachments under the orders of Capt Potts of the King's Regt. at this post; the Detachment of the King under the Command of Capt Lanotts's will furnish a relief of l Sergt 1 Corpral and 12 privates every day to the above Detachment. The D. Quartermaster General will direct a hut to be built imediately within the lines of the incampment of Capt Potts's Detachment to receive all publick stores and is to be sufficent to protect them from the weather; each Corps shall receive under their
him thoroughly conversant with the Iroquois tongue. His services were therefore highly useful in superintending the publication of a correct translation into the Mohawk language of the Book of Common Prayer, one thousand copies of which were ordered by Gov. Haldimand, at the request of the Mohawk Indians to be printed under the supervision of Col. Claus, " who," the preface states, "read and understood the Mohawk language so as to undertake the correction of the book for the press." This edition soon became exhausted ; thereupon the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in foreign parts resolved to have a new edition printed, especially as Col. Claus, who was in England at the time, consented to superintend the impression, critically revise the whole, and correct the sheets as they came from the press. "His accurate knowledge of the Mohawk language," continues the preface, " qualified him for the undertaking, and it is no more than justice to say, that this is only one out of many instances of this gentleman's unremitting attention to the welfare of the Indians." Col. Claus lived for a number of years in a large stone house which stood a short distance west of "Guy Park" the residence of Sir Guy Johnson. (See preceding note under Castle Johnson.) It was burned down many years since. N. Y. Col. Doc.; N. Y. Doc. Hist, ; Gentleman's Magazine, Stone's Life of Brant, Ed.
charge a certain number of Boats; all the overplus
boats for publick stores will come under the charge of C. Potts's Detachment
and Each Corps will be answerable for the particular attention for the safety
of the boats given unto their charge, and to report to the Superintendent
any repairs they may want. Each corps after Expending what provisions they
have reed, to draw weekly their rations, and they will sign an order for all
provisions drawn for such persons on this Expedition in his majestys service
who do not belong to any particular Corps. Colonel Claus will ascertain the
number of Indians absolutely necessary to be fed at this post of which he
will give directions to the Brigades who will give directions that the S.
rations be issued dayly to the Indians, and Colonel Claus will appoint a person
from the Indian Department who speaks the Missaga [Misissagua] language to
attend the delivery of said provisions which by him is to be Reed in bulk
delivered in Camp to Indian Department, and the D. Commissary General will
deliver no provisions to any person but under the assignment of Commanding
officers of Corps and detachments and the Deputy Quartermaster General. Lieut.
Burnet of the King's Regt is appointed Superintendent of the King's Batteaux.
For Fatigue to morrow. King's Regt, 16 P.; 34th Regt, 1 S. 17 P.; R. Y., 2
L. 1 S. 27 P.; K. R. R. N. Y. gives the Subaltern for the day to morrow. REGTL
ORDERS. For guard to morrow Ens Lipscomb, 1 S. 1 C. and 10 privates. S. Crawford
of M. Gray's Comp'y to do duty. [illegible] McDonell's Compy. C. Campbell
is appointed Sergt in Major Gray's Company in the Room of S. Crawford. John
Raley is appointed Corpi, in M. Gray's Company in the Room of Corporal Campbell.
The officers commanding companys to be very particular that the mens arms
and accutrements be in good order as they are to be reviewed to morrowat Guard
mounting; all the Boats that want repairing in the different compys their
numbers to be given in immediately to the Quartermaster. Lieut Anderson officer
for the day to morrow.
-14th. MORNING ORDERS. All leaky and damaged batteaux' belonging to the different
(1) The bateaux of the army (afterwards known as " Durham boats," or barges) and the canoes of the Indians, formed so important a part of the Expedition, that a description of them, gathered from Bouchette and Weld, will be of interest. Bateaux were flat-bottomed boats, having a plank around them to walk on or to pole, from thirty-five to forty feet long, each extremity terminating in a point; six feet of beam in the center; usual weight, four and one-half tons , worked by oars , a mast sail, capable of carrying l,500 lbs. of cargo, drag ropes for turning, and long poles for "setting" them through the currents and rapids. The sides were about four feet high, and for the convenience of the rowers, four or five benches were laid across, sometimes more, according to the length of the bateau. Four men managed them in summer, but, in the fall) another rower was always added. " It is," says Weld, " a very awkward sort of vessel, either for rowing or sailing, but it is preferred to a boat with a keel for two very obvious reasons: first, because it draws less water, at the same time that it carries a larger burden ; and secondly, because it is much safer on lakes or large rivers, where storms are frequent. A proof of this came under our observation the day of our leaving Montreal [this was in 1796]. We had reached a wide part
corps to be immediately hauled on shore and turned up on their own ground, ready for repair under the directions of Lieut. Burnet, and any boats that may have been drawn up before the present directions of ground took place not within the the present line of incampment and to be Immediately Launched, and brought to the ground of their Regiment to prevent confusion. Mr. Charles Miller is appointed Bateau Master in the room of Mr. Kuysak and is to be attended [obeyed] as such.(1)
of the river, and were sailing along with a favorable wind, when suddenly the horizon grew very dark, and a dreadful storm arose, accompanied with loud peals of thunder and torrents of rain. Before the sail could be taken in, the ropes which held it were snapped in pieces, and the waves began to dash over the sides of the bateaux, though the water had been quite smooth five minutes before. It was impossible now to counteract the force of the wind with oars, and the bateau was consequently driven on shore, but the bottom of it being quite flat, it was carried smoothly upon the beach without sustaining any injury, and the men leaping out drew it up on dry land, where we remained out of all danger till the storm was over. A keelboat, however, of the same size, could not have approached nearer to the shore than thirty feet, and there it would have stuck fast in the sand, and probably have been filled with water." For a graphic description of the manner in which these bateaux were handled and propelled by the bateauxmen, and an account of the habits of this class of boatmen, see note in advance, under date of the l7th of June.
From La Chine to the Northwest, canoes were and still are, employed by the furtraders. They seldom exceed thirty feet in length, six feet in breadth, each end, like the bateaux, terminating in a sharp point. The frame is composed of small pieces of light wood covered with birchbark, cut into convenient slips, sewed together with threads from the twisted fibres of roots of trees that grow in the woods. These canoes are made watertight by being covered with a sort of gum that adheres firmly, and becomes perfectly hard. No ironwork of any description, not even a nail, is employed , and when complete the canoe weighs about 500 lbs. In managing the canoes, the Indian uses but his paddle and makes his way with amazing expedition. "It was on one of these Indian canoes," says Sergeant Lamb in his Memoirs, "that General Sir Guy Carleton, accompanied by an aide de camp, passed undetected through the enemy's fleet from Montreal to Quebec, to put the city in a state of defence."
(1) Mr. Miller was succeeded by Captain Martin, whose tragical fate, revealing, by the way, the treachery of St. Leger, is thus referred to in the affidavit of Moses Younglove, a part of which is quoted in a preceding note. " Capt. Martin, of the bateauxmen," says Younglove, " was delivered to the Indians at Oswego on pretense of his having kept back some
Signed, W. Ancrum, D. Ajt. General. A return of the number of caulkers and carpenters belonging to the different corps to be given in Immediately to the D. A. G. and they will be ready to attend Mr. Burnet at one o'clock. P. Brunswick. C. Kent. No person whatsoever to trade rum or any spirituous liquors for any thing which the Indians may have to dispose of; those people will be Informed by their officers that it is necessary to have the C. S. to pass the Gentries and guards of the Comp-and they will strongly recommend to them not to leave their incampment after dark lest they should be subjected to Inconveniencies from the difficulty of pronouncing or Remembering the pass-word ; no Soldier or any of the Corps Canadians on any account to fire their arms unless to discharge them after bad weather and then in the presence of an Officer-No trader on this Island to sell any Rum or spirituous liquor without the assignment of Capt Potts of the King's Regt(1); any
useful intelligence." " Moses Younglove," writes his grandnephew, Moses Younglove, a prominent and influential citizen of Cleveland, Ohio, to the author, under date of Aug. 2d, 1881, "was a man of strong convictions and decided character, not easily turned from any settled purpose." As stated in a preceding note, Moses Younglove was a man of great truthfulness and of sterling integrity.
(1) The history of this regiment is an exceedingly interesting one, and is as follows: When James, Duke of Monmouth, natural son of Charles II, engaged in rebellion against his uncle, James II, in 1685, corps of cavalry and infantry were quickly raised for the support of the crown, and Robert, Lord Ferrars of Chartly, whose father. Sir Robert Shirley, Bart., was one of the sufferers in the royal cause in the time of Charles I, was appointed to the command of one of these corps raised on that occasion ; which, having been continued in service to the present time, now bears the distinguished title of the "8th or KING'S REGIMENT or FOOT." It was in the battle of the Boyne; and, as
officer wanting such things will send their orders to be countersigned by him to prevent forgeries and Impositon; the guard of the camp not to turn out but once a day to the Brigadier nor are they to take notice of him unless in his Uniform. Sergt Killigrew of the 34th Regt is appointed provost Martial at is-bd pr day for the Expedition and to be obeyed as such; his guard to be proportioned to the number of prisoners ; a Corporal and 4 private men from the line to mount at the usual time to morrow morning for this duty; all prisoners Except those styled officers
mentioned in the Introduction, at the sieges of Limerick, Dublin and Kinsale. It served with bravery from 1696-1701, in the Netherlands, Ireland and Holland, and, in 1702, on the elevation of the Princess Anne to the throne, was designated "The Queen's Regiment." It was among the first to storm the citadel at the siege of Liege in the same year (1702). In the following year, it was at the siege of Huy and Limburg; and, in 1704, took part in the great battles of Schellenberg and Blenheim. At Helixem, it forced the French lines. After the suppression of the rebellion headed by the Pretender and the Earl of Mar in 1716, the regiment was stationed a short time at Glasgow, at which time, George I showed his appreciation of its good behavior on all these occasions by conferring on it the distinguished title of "The King's Regiment of Foot." On obtaining this title, the facing of the uniform was changed from yellow to blue, and the regiment was authorized to bear the WHITE HORSE as a regimental badge with the motto NEC ASPERA TERRENT. In 1777, at the time of Burgoyne assuming the command of the expedition from Canada, the protection of a portion of the Canadian frontiers was confided to it; the regiment also furnishing a detachment of one hundred men for St. Leger's command, in his campaign against Fort Stanwix. In 1809, it assisted in the capture of Martinique. Again, in the war of 1812, it greatly distinguished itself. It participated in the actions at Fort George and Sackett's Harbor, Chippawa and Niagara; and was also at the siege of Fort Erie and at the battle of Plattsburg where it captured the stand of American colors, which Gen. Sir George Prevost sent to England to be laid at the feet of his Royal Highness, the Prince Regent. The Historical Record of the British army (London, 1844) thus concludes a sketch of this regiment. "Distinguished by a long period of meritorious service, including heroic conduct in numerous battles and sieges which reflect luster on the British arms, and by excellent behavior under all the circumstances of colonial and home service, the 8th or the King's Regiment possesses a high and an untarnished reputation, and ranks among the corps which deservedly possess the confidence of the crown and kingdom."
from the Rebel army to go on all fatigues daily,
a man of the Guard to attend them; the Rations pr. day for all Rebel prisoners
of whatever distinction to be an oz. of pork and pound of flour(1). For duty
to morrow-K's Regt, 17 P.; 34th Regt, 1 C. 16 P.; R. R. Regt, 3 L. 1 S. 1
C. 32 P. REGT ORDERS. For Guard to morrow Ens Lipscomb. 1. 1. 2. and 20 private
men. Its Major Gray's orders that an officer of a Compy shall Read to the
men the Gen. Orders against trafficking with the Indians with Rum(2) and that
the officers imployed in seeing the Batteaus carried over the long Sault shall
give in an Exact list of the number of Boats brought up by each squad.
-15th." P. London. C. Edinburgh. The duty of the Provost Marshal(3). The care of all
(1) This order affords a glimpse of how short the rations had already become even at this early stage of the campaign.
(2) "St. Leger, however, did not in his fracttce carry out these excellent orders. On the contrary, we find Col. Claus complaining greatly that owing to the action of St. Leger in this particular, he could with difficulty control those Indians under his command. "On the 24th of July," Claus writes, " Brig. St. Leger mentioned my going was chiefly intended to quiet the Indians with him, who were very drunk and riotous, and Capt. Tice, who was the messenger, informed me that St. Leger ordered the Indians a quart of rum apiece, which made them all beastly drunk, and in which case, it is not in the power of man to quiet them. Soon after, finding the Indians were unwilling to proceed, St. Leger came away from Salmon creek and arrived the next day at Oswego with the companies of the 8th and 34th regiments and about 50 Indians." Col. Claus to Sec'y. Knox, Oct. 16, 1777. This conduct of St. Leger, however, may be partly solved by the fact that the English, save in the notable case of Sir William Johnson, never acquired the knack of managing the Indians. The French, on the contrary, by assimilating, marrying and affiliating with them, handled the red men admirably.
(3) The attention of the reader is directed to St. Leger's admirable description of what the duties of a provost marshal should be.
prisoners taken in battle, spies and deserters is Intrusted to them forthwith; he will have a guard strong in proportion to their number; all disorders in the camp fall under his cognizance; he is to have the control of all settlers and traders- selling Liquor, and have authority for Impressing such as he finds disobedient to General Orders; he is to regulate all markets that may be formed in the Camp, and appoint proper places for them, and likewise to protect with his authority and guard all persons comming with provisions to the troops; he is from time to time to send out patroles from his guard and when necessary attend them himself to take prisoners all marauders and stragglers; all his reports are to be made to the D. Quartermaster General-only for the Information of the Commander-in chief cases relative to the economy of the Comp, and to the D. A. General all Extraordinary matters ; as spies, deserters, &c. &c. In cases of Executions he is to the Martial law what the Sheriff of a County is to the Civil; he is to be provided with an Executioner when this he Requests and when a more honourable death by fire arms is granted he will give the word of command; his guard is to be near headquarters.
G. O. Commanding officers of the different Corps will derect that the mens tents are struck and the rear turned up every fine day at 10 o'clock and remain so four hours at least to air them perfectly; their streets must be swept every morning; no washing, cleaning of arms or accoutrements or doing any thing in them that may render them filthy and Consequently unwholesome must be suffered.
The K. R. R. of New York will Expend that part of their ammunition which [is] fit for service in firing at marks Every morning in presence of their officers. For duty-K. R. Regt, 1 L. I S. 17 P.; 34th Regt, 1 L. 2 C. 15 P.; K. R. R. N. Y., 1 L. 1 S. 32 P. 34th Regiment to give the subaltern of the Day to morrow, 1 man to be sent [as] orderly over the adjt General.
REGT. ORDERS. For Guard to morrow Lieut. Walker, 1 S. 1 C, 1 D. 16 private men-all the men of the R. Regt ofN. Y. to fire two Rounds of Ball Cartridge each to morrow morning at 10 o'clock.
-16th. MORNING ORDERS. The Kings Royal Regt of N. York to send one Sergt and 12 careful men to the artillery at 8 o'clock to examin the Ammunition. Signed, WM CROFTS, Major Brigade.
P. Bristol. C. Taunton. For duty to morrow K. Regt, 4 P.; 34th
Regt, 1 C. 6 P. ; K. R.
Regt N. Y., 1 L. 1 C. 5 P.
Its Sir John's orders that the officers Commanding Companys Settle with their men Before to morrow night and pay them the Ballance of their accts to the 24th of August Inclusive.
Its Major Gray's Orders that [the officers] see
that the men wash their cloathing and clean their arms to Morrow as there
are but few men for duty ; they will likewise Examine their Necessaries of
which they will give a report in writing to Major Gray.
-17th. P. Winchester. C. York. The Brigadier has the satisfaction to inform the Corps in this expedition that Fort Ticonderoga, a large Quantity of provision & artillery & stores with their whole stock of live cattle were abandoned by the rebels to the grand army the 6th instant; that many prisoners were taken & many killed, and that at the moment the advanced corps of Indians were in hot pursuit; the troops on this expedition to hold themselves in readiness to embark on an hours notice; 40 Days provision for 500 men to be immediately sorted to be ready to be embarked on boats which the superintendents will point out'. Lieutenant Collorton will
(1) As hinted in the Introduction, this order for rations enables us forever to put at rest the long mooted question in regard to the number of men actually engaged in this expedition against Fort Stanwix. By contemporaneous writers (among them Judge Thomas Jones in his History of New York during the Revolution) and also by those of later date, such, for instance, as Col. Wm. L. Stone in his Life of Brant, Campbell in his History of Tryon County, Lossing, de Peyster, Roberts and others, it has invariably been stated that St. Leger's force consisted of 1,700 men, including Indians. General Riedesel, moreover (see Riedesel's Journals, Vol. 1st) would make it the same by his detail from the different regiments sent out; and Dr. Dwight, who visited Fort Stanwix in 1799, gives, in his Travels, the number from 1,500 to 1,800, while in his History of the American Revolution, Dr. Gordon who stood the test for accuracy, differs from the above authorities, St. Leger's forces , by his estimate, having been only 800. Lord Geroge Germaine, also, in a latter to Sir Guy Carleton, dated" Whitehall, 26th March, 1777," says: "It is the King's further pleasure that you put under the command of Col. St. Leger; A detachment from the 8th regiment, 100;
prepare ammunition For two 6 pounders' & 2 Cohorns and 50 rounds ball cartridges per man for 500 men and make a demand of the number of large boats that will be sufficent For their transports; all ovens to be set at work to bake 6 Days bread For 500 men; great care must be taken that it will be well soakt to keep in that time; each corps to find what bakers they have [and report] to the Deputy Commissary general at 10 o'clock; the kings regt, the 34, Captain Watts's Detachment, and Capt Reveil's [Rouville] corps to be compleated with 50 rounds of good ammunition Immediatly. All those corps who have it not in their own stores will make a demand on the artillery and give a receipt agreable to the forms they require; it is absolutely necessary that the officers commanding Corps should provide their men with some sort of cases to
a detachment from the 34th regiment, 100, Sir John Johnson's regiment of New York, 133, Hanau Chasseurs, 342; total, 675, together with a sufficient number of Indians and Canadians."
We are now, however, enabled to state accurately the force employed ; and, as usual, we find that Dr. Gordon is more nearly correct than any other writer. If we consider that the 500 rations, mentioned in the text, were, as is probably the case, for the white troops solely, we have 500 as the number. Now, in the letter of Col. Claus to Secretary Knox, it is expressly stated that the Indians in this expedition were composed of 150 Misissagues (a tribe of the Hurons) under Claus himself, and 300 of the Six Nations under Brant. Therefore 500 + 150 + 300 gives the number of St. Leger's force as 950 all told ; and this is without doubt a correct statement. If, however, the 500 rations included the Indians, the total number of white and Indian troops would be 500, a very much smaller force than 1,700. St. Leger left a portion of his force at Oswego, and refused to take more men, though strongly urged to do so by Col. Claus (Claus to Sec'y. Knox). Indeed, it was undoubtedly owing to the smallness of his force, caused by his foolish belittling of the enemy's numbers and bravery, that he failed to capture Fort. Stanwix.
(1) These two 6 pounders and the two cohorns (mortars) were left behind by St. Leger in his undignified and hasty retreat and fell into the hands of the Americans. N. Y. Calendar Rev. Papers, Vol. II.
keep their locks dry through the woods in rainy weather ; the master of the Ship Colwheel and Mr. Miller, the Chief Ship Carpenter with any other carpenters or seamen they think proper to call For to assist or advise with, and to take an exact and particular Survey of the State and condition of the Sloop Charity, and to make the report to the brigadier in writing this Day, signifying therein whether their works and timber will admit of such repair as will enable her to sail the lakes again with any probability of safety. Lieutenant Barnet of the kings regt will preside on this survey.
For Duty to morrow K. regt, 6 P.; and 34th, I C. 7 P.; the kings royal yorkers, 1 L. I C. 10 P. A return to be given in immediately by each corps to lieutenant Barnet of the kings regt of the number of batteaux(1), painters, oars, settingpoles
(1) The following extract from field's Travels in Upper and Lower Canada in 1795-97, a book now quite rare, will give the reader an excellent idea both of the manner in which the setting poles were used in propelling the bateaux, and of the characteristics of the bateauxmen themselves.
"It was on the 28th of August,"  he writes, " that we reached La Chine, the next day the 'brigade,' as it was called, of bateaux was ready, and in the afternoon we set out on our voyage. Three men are found sufficient to conduct an empty bateau of about two cons burden up the St. Lawrence, but if the bateaux be laden, more are generally allowed. They ascend the stream by means of poles, oars and sails. Where the current is very strong, they make use of the former, keeping as close as possible to the shore, in order to avoid the current, and to have the advantage of shallow water to pole in. The men set their poles together at the same moment, and all work at the same side of the bateaux, the steersman, however, shifts his pole occasionally from side to side in order to keep the vessel in an even direction. The poles commonly used are about eight feet in length, extremely light and headed with iron. On coming to a deep bay or inlet, the men abandon the poles, take to their oars, and strike, if possible, directly across the mouth of the bay, but in many places the current proves so strong that it is absolutely impossible to stem it by means of oars, and they are obliged to pole entirely round the bay. Whenever the wind is favorable they set their sail;
and paddles, specifying the size of the bateaux
-18th. P. Onandaga. C. Fort Bull(1). The advance Guards consisting of all the officers &
but it is only at the upper end of the river, beyond the rapids, or on the lakes or broad parts of it where the current is not swift, that the sail by itself is sufficient to impel them forward. " The exertion it requires to counteract the force of the stream by means of poles and oars is so great, that the men are obliged to stop very frequently to take breath. The places at which they stop are regularly ascertained; some of them, where the current is very rapid, are not more than half a mile distant one from the other, others one or two, but none of them more than four miles apart. Each of these places, the boatmen, who are almost all French Canadians, denominate 'une pipe' because they are allowed to stop at it and fill their pipes. A French Canadian is scarcely ever without a pipe in his mouth, whether working at the oar or plow, whether on foot, or on horseback; indeed, so much addicted are the people to smoking, that by the burning of tobacco in their pipes, they commonly ascertain the distance from one place to another. Such a place, they say, it three pipes off, that is, it is so far off that you may smoke three pipes full of tobacco whilst you go thither. A pipe as in the most general acceptation of the word, seemed to be about three-quarters of an English mile.
"The men, who are engaged in conducting bateaux in Canada, are, as I have before observed, a very hardy race. When the weather is fair, they sleep on the grass at night, without any other covering than a short blanket, scarcely reaching down to their knees, during wet weather a sail or blanket to the weather side spread on poles stuck into the ground in an inclined direction, is all the shelter they deem necessary. On setting out, each man is furnished with a certain allowance of salted pork, biscuit, pease and brandy, the pease and biscuit they boil with some of the pork into porridge, and a large vessel full of it is generally kept at the head of the bateaux, for the use of the crew when they stop in the course of the day. This porridge, or else cold fat salted pork, with cucumbers, constitutes the principal part of their food, The cucumber is a fruit that the lower classes of French Canadians are extremely fond of, they use it however in a very indifferent state, as they never pull it until it has attained a large size, and is become yellow and seedy. Cucumbers thus mellow, chopped into small pieces without being peeled, and afterwards mixed with sour cream, is one of their favorite dishes."
From the above extract, it may be seen that a person reading at the time it was written, the text a few sentences in advance under date of the l8th, where the expression "to be ready to push the morning" is used, would not have needed the explanatory word "ahead " which we have inserted in brackets, At that time, the phrase "to be ready to push at a moment's warning" was used, and understood in reference to the poling operation, as if, now, one should say, "to be ready to sail in the morning," or "to be ready to row in the morning," the verb "to push" being at that time used in a strictly conventional or technical sense, and not as we at the present day employ the term "to push forward," i. e., "to start."
(1) Fort Bull, situated about halfway on the Oneida portage, played a prominent part in the early border warfare of New York. It had always given the French
80 rank & file of the Kings & 34th Regts, the Tribe of Misisagey Indians, with what is on the Island of the Six Nations, & the officers and rangers will move to morrow Morning at 4 o'clock.
The Kings & 34th Regts will Receive 10 Boats Each for their men & twenty days provision. The officers will be allowed a proper portion of Boats for their Baggage on their way to Oswego, those boats will be man'd by the Supernumeraries of each corps. Capt. Ruvielle's corps of Canadians will remove the same time & carry 20 Days provisions for 500 men. The Corps will be assisted by a proper number of men [from] the Ks and 34th to mount the Rapids from Oswego to Fort Stanwix(1). The provision boats as
trouble, and on the l7th of March, 1756, De-Levy with three hundred men, suddenly appeared before it and summoned it to surrender. This summons, Sir Wm. Johnson having meanwhile supplied the commander with abundance of ammunition, was answered by a shower of bullets. This so exasperated De Levy that he forth with ordered a charge, and breaking down the gate, put all but thirty of the garrison to the sword. The French officer then burned the fort, and having destroyed forty thousand pounds of powder, returned with his prisoners into Canada with the loss of only three men. Stone's Sir Wm. Johnson, Vol. n, p. i.
(1) This fort has quite a history; In 1758, General John Stanwix, who came to America in 1756, as colonel of the 1st Battalion of the 6oth Royal Americans, was sent by General Abercrombie after ohit defeat at Ticonderoga to build a fort on the ruins of old Fort Williams (namedafter Capt. William Williams of Sir William Pepperell's regiment, who was in command of the fort for a short time) near the rise of the Mohawk river on the Oneida Carrying Place at the head of boat navigation, the site of the present city of Rome, N. Y. "It was a strong square fortification, having bomb-proof bastions, a glacis, covert way, and a well picketed ditch around the ramparts." Its position was important in a military point of view, for it commanded the portage between the Mohawk and Wood creek, and was a key to communication between the Mohawk valley and Lake Champlain. The works cost the British and Colonial government two hundred and sixty-six thousand four hundred dollars, yet when the Revolution broke out the fort and its outposts were in ruins. Accordingly, in 1776, it was repaired by Colonel Dayton, who, to please his patron, Gen. Philip
well as those of the officers baggage are to be Loaded this Evening ready to push [ahead] at a moment's warning in the morning. The advance Corps to carry 6 Days provision in bread & pork to shut out any possibility of want of provision from Delays or Disappointments of the Ks vessels;
Schuyler, changed its name to Fort Schuyler. In a manuscript letter, now in my possession and before me as I write, under date of "German Flats, Aug. 8th, 1776," General Schuyler writes to Col. Dayton as follows : " * * * I thank you for the honor you have done me in calling the fort by my name. As I cannot, consistent with delicacy, announce this to Congress, would it not be right for you to do it, and to General Washington?"
Although known by the Americans during the war as Fort Schuyler, yet the name did not "take ," and it has always been known in history by its original one, " Fort Stanwix." Fort Schuyler (Fort Stanwix) must not be confounded with the one built on the present site of Utica, N. Y., which latter has been known as "Old Fort Schuyler " to distinguish it from Fort Schuyler of Fort Stanwix fame. Fort Stanwix was destroyed by fire and a a freshet in 1781, and was never rebuilt. At the time of St. Leger's siege, the fort was garrisoned by the 3d New York Continental regiment, a company of artillery, and a small body of infantry, consisting in all of six hundred men (de Lancey says 700) and commanded by that staunch patriot, Colonel Peter Gansevoort.
We cannot, however, dismiss Fort Stanwix without noticing one incident in particular, which, if for no other reason, must always make this fort memorable in our Revolutionary annals. We allude to the fact that it was on her ramparts during St. Leger's siege, that the stars and stripes were unfurled for the first time! In writing of this siege and of the circumstances of the flag, Colonel Stone, in his Life of Brant, says: "A besieging army was before the fort, and its garrison was without a flag! But as necessity is the mother of invention, they were not long thus destitute. Stripes of white were cut from ammunition shirts, blue from a camlet cloak captured from the enemy, while the red was supplied from the petticoat of a soldier's wife; and thus furnished, commenced the celebrated siege of Fort Schuyler" [Stanwix]. In the late Oriskany centennial, Ex-Governor Horatio Seymour, speaking of this flag in his address of welcome, at its close eloquently said : "It is a just source of patriotic pride to those who live in this valley [i. e., the Mohawk valley] that the flag of our country (with the stars and stripes) was first displayed in the face of our enemies on the banks of the Mohawk. Here it was baptized in the blood of battle. Here it first waved in triumph over a retreating foe. When the heroic defenders of Fort Stanwix learned in that remote fortress the emblem adopted by the Continental Congress for the standards to be borne by its armies, they hastened to make one in accordance with the mandate, and to hang it out from the walls of their fortress. It was rudely made of such materials cut from the clothing of the soldiers as were fitted to show its colors and its designs. But no other standard however skillfully wrought upon silken folds could equal in interest the first flag of our country worked out by the unskillful hands of brave inert amid the strife of war and under the fire of beleaguering foes. It was to rescue it from its perils that the
the officer command'gin chief finds himself under the painfull necessity of putting a short stop to the currency of Trade by ordering that the crews of the boats that come to unload on the Island may go one trip with provision to Oswego for which they will be paid. Every Brigade of provision boats, which arrived before the return of the vessals from Niagara, Capt Potts will push forward to Oswego with all Expedition. REGTL ORDERS. For Guard to morrow Ensign Wall, 1 S. 1 C.1 D. 15 P. Each officer Commanding Companys is to pay 3 Dollars, Each subaltern i Dollar to the Quartermaster in order to pay the men that carry'd the batteaux over the Long Sault, & the officers ot the Colonels Company to pay Three Dollars extraordinary [for] the batteau that was lost at Point Abaw(1) in place
men of this valley left their homes and marched through the deep forest to this spot. "It was to uphold the cause of which it was the emblem that they battled here. Time has destroyed that standard, but I hold in my hand another banner hardly less sacred in its associations with our history. It is the flag of our State which was borne by the regiment commanded by Colonel Gansevoort, not only here at the beginning of the Revolutionary war, but also when it ended by the surrender of the British army at Yorktown. The brave soldier who carried it valued it beyond all earthly possessions. He left it as a precious heirloom to his family. They have kept it with such faithful care that now after a century has rolled away its folds can be displayed in this valley to another generation who will look upon it with a devotion equal to that felt by those who followed it on the battle fields of the Revolution. When it is now unfurled let it receive the military honors accorded to it a hundred years ago , and let us reverently uncover our heads in memory of the dead who watched and guarded it through the perils of ancient war."
"John F. Seymour then displayed the flag upon which the vast audience gave three rousing cheers and lifted their hats.
"All the military presented arms and the band played the 'Star Spangled Banner."
This flag was the standard of the Third New York regiment commanded by Col. Peter Gansevoort, who at the disbandment of the army retained it in his own possession and handed it down to his son, the late Peter Gansevoort, from whom it descended to his daughter Mrs. Abraham Lansing, of Albany, in whose hands it is now reverently preserved.
(1) Point au Baudet, situated in Lake St.
of Five paid to the Indians for finding the 5th
Bateau, and for the future whatever Companys shall lose Batteaux or provisions
by negligence shall pay the whole value & be liable to censure besides;
as men seem to be careless about their arms & Accoutrements it is the
Commanding officers orders that at Roll Call evening & morning the men
appear with their arms, and whoever loses any of them shall be obliged to
pay for the same.
-19th. P. Hesse Hanau. C. Cassel. The troop [i. e. Bugle-call J will assemble the advanced corps, & upon the beating the second troop, they will embark. Each corps will be allowed 1 boat to carry such things as will be immediately wanted, which will move with the Artillery and provisions destined for Fort Stanwix. The remainder will stay at Oswego till a general clearance of that post. The whole Brigade of Canadians that brought up the Hessians to be employed in carrying provisions to Oswego after giving Eight hands to strengthen Capt Rouvilles Company. The Artillery under the conduct of Lt.
Francis in the St. Lawrence, and the place where the boundary line begins that separates Upper from Lower Canada. It was, too, just the spot where a bateau might very easily be lost, since when the wind comes from the southwest, the immense body of water in the lake is impelled directly towards this point, and a surf breaks in upon the beach, as tremendous as is seen on the sea shore. When Weld visited the place in 1796, "there was," he says, "one solitary house here which proved to be a tavern, and afforded us a well-drest supper of venison, and decent accommodation for the night." Weld had been obliged, on account of the surf and the strong southwest wind then prevailing, to tarry over at the Point until the next morning. To what circumstance Point au Baudet (Point of the Donkey) owes its name, is not stated.
(1) For the following admirable sketch of Oswego, I am indebted to Mr. B. B.
Collerton to carry 20 days Provision for their own Detachment. Three of the Rebel Prisoners now in the Provo Guard who have taken the oaths of allegiance to the King are to be employed as Batteau men to Lt. Glennie's Detachment to which will be added 10 Men of the Royal Yorkers which takes two boats from their proper line of transports.
Burt, of that city, who, though heavily burdened with professional duties, kindly found time to prepare it. Mr. Burt is well known, together with Mr. O. H. Marshall, and Mr. Wm. C. Bryant, of Buffalo, N. Y., as one who has made the early history of Lake Ontario a profound study, and this sketch from his pen, will, I believe, be highly appreciated by all historical students. Mr. Burt writes:
"The Onondaga Indians have a tradition that Ta-oun-ya-wat-ha, the deity that presides over fisheries and hunting grounds came down from above in his white canoe, and selected a couple of warriors from among the Onondagas, who met him at Oswego. They together passed up the Oswego river and removed all obstructions to navigation so that canoes could pass in safety.
"The first European that discovered Lake Ontario was Champlain, in 1615. In the month of October of that year he left Canada to go to a fortified village of the Iroquois, In the Onondaga county. He crossed the outlet of Lake Ontario with an armed party of ten Frenchmen and some Indian allies, and after passing many islands followed the eastern shore of the lake to a point where they landed. After leaving their canoes, they proceeded about four leagues over a sandy tract, and came to a very beautiful country. This was the town of Sandy creek and Richland in this county. Leaving the shores of the lake they went southward and crossed the outlet of Oneida lake.
"In October, 1653, Father Joseph Poncec, a Jesuit missionary, on a return from a visit to the Mohawk country went through Oswego on his way down the St. Lawrence river.
"In July, or early in August, 1654, the Jesuit Father, Simon Le Moyne, visited Oswego on his way to Onondaga, and on the 16th of August of that year discovered the salt springs at Salina.
"On the 29th day of October, 1655, Father Chanmonot and the Jesuit Dablon arrived at Ontiahantaque (Oswego), and encamped there for a day or two, on their way to Onondaga. They describe it as a large river discharging into Lake Ontario. Dablon gave a description of the place.
"In 1656, the expedition that founded the colony Genentaha, on Onondaga lake, was at Oswego. The historian of the party said : 'On the 7th July we arrived, about ten o'clock in the evening at the mouth of the river [Oswego] which flows from the Lake Genentaha [Onondaga], on the bank of which we proceeded to erect a dwelling for the night. The next day we found the currents of water so rapid that it required all our force to surmount them.'
"On a French map made by Franquelin, in 1679, Oswego is called Onontaguero. In June or July, 1679, Father Hennepin and associates came to Oswego in a brigantine, and erected a bark cabin half a league in the woods for divine service and to avoid the intrusion of the savages, who came to trade for powder, etc., and particularly
- l9th. AFTER ORDERS. The several corps to proceed in 2 lines dressing. The leading boats, the officer commanding in chief & the staff to Lead ; the lines to be followed by the Artillery, Kings Regt, Capt Ruvill's Company, & 2 Merchts boats 6c 34th Regt.
brandy. M. De Chesnau wrote a letter to Count Frontenac, dated July 28, 168 2, and called Oswego 'Techonaguen', and on July 28, 1696, Count Frontenac arrived at Oswego on his expedition against the Onondagas.
" The English regarded Oswego as a place of importance, and in 1722 established a trading house there, and in 1727, under colonial Governor Burnet, it was strengthened and fortified and named "Fort Oswego', and on some maps it was called 'Fort Pepperell,' and was the first fort constructed there.
"John Bartram on a trip from Philadelphia to Canada arrived in Oswego on the 25th day of July, 1743, and described the place as follows: 'On the point formed by the entrance of the river [into Lake Ontario] stands a fort or trading castle , it is a strong stone house encompassed with a stone wall near twenty feet high, and 120 paces round, built of large square stones curious for their softness. I cut my name in it with my knife. The town consists of about seventy log houses, of which one-half are in a row near the river, the other half opposite them. On the other side of a fair were two streets, divided by a row of posts in the midst where each Indian has his house to lay his goods, and where any of the traders may traffic with him.'
"In 1755 Gen. Shirley came to Oswego with the intention of attacking Fort Niagara, then in the possession of the French, but there being a delay in getting supplies and a difficulty in obtaining transports, the expedition was abandoned for that year. Lieut. Col. Mercer was left with about 700 men and during that fall and ensuing winter and spring constructed two new forts : 'Fort Ontario' on the east and 'Oswego new fort' or 'Fort George' on the west side of the river.
"All of these forts were captured by Montcalm, August 14, 1756 and destroyed, and Oswego abandoned by the French. Soon thereafter the English again occupied the place and rebuilt Fort Ontario on nearly the site of the fort which still bears that name, and was the only one rebuilt.
"The first vessel constructed by the English on Lake Ontario, was at Oswego in 1755. At that time the French called Oswego 'Chouaguen.'
"Gen. Bradstreet accompanied by 3,000 men remained in Oswego for a short time, in August, 1758, on his way to capture Fort Frontenac.
"On the 27th day of June, 1759, Gen. Prideaux and Sir William Johnson with an army, arrived at Oswego, on the way to capture Fort Niagara, were engaged in procuring provisions on the 28th, 29th and 30th, and in making preparations for the march ; left Oswego, July 1st, arrived before Niagara on the 8th, and August 8th invested and took the fort; after which the army in two vessels and accompanied by Sir William Johnson (Prideaux having, meanwhile, been killed at Niagara), returned to Oswego on Tuesday the 7th of August. Sir William remained here several days engaged in rebuilding Fort Ontario in a pentagon form, and passing his leisure moments in shooting and fishing. In your own Life of Sir William Johnson you give in the appendix to Vol. II, the journal of the
Signals to be observ'd by the Detach'mt; the Ensign hoisted a mid ships and one musket a Signal for all boats to put off. The Ensign hoisted in the bow and one musket a signal for all boats to put ashore. A Signal to be made by any boat in Distress, three successive muskets; a signal for [illegible] any thing while in the bow(1).
Baronet kept by him during his stay at this time at Oswego, which is full of interest. Mrs. Grant, also, in her Memoirs of an American Lady, speaks very pleasantly of the winter of 1759-60, which she spent at Fort Ontario. "July or August, 1760, General (afterwards Lord) Amherst left Oswego, with 10,000 men for Canada, to destroy the French dominion there ; and on the 9th of July of the same year, Col. Woodhull, with a collection of troops from Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, Connecticut and New Jersey and the 44th Highlanders, arrived at Oswego and encamped near Fort Ontario on the 16th of July. His journal closes with the army at Oswego, July 20th.
"On Tuesday, the 21st of July, 1761 (Sunday), Sir William Johnson arrived on his way to Detroit, at Oswego, and on the 21st held a conference with the Onondaga natives, at which Maj. Duncan, Capt. Gray and several officers of the 55th and Gen. Gage's regiments, Lieut. Guy Johnson acting as secretary, with interpreters and upwards of forty sachems and warriors were present. Sir William opened the meeting by welcoming them to Oswego. For the particulars of this conference see your Life of Sir William Johnson, Vol. n, p. 435-438.
"July 23 to 31, 1766, there was an Indian council at Oswego, at which Pontiac and other chiefs and Sir William Johnson were present.
"July 27th and 28th, 1777, the expedition under Gen. St. Leger left Oswego and in August fought at the battle of Oriskany.
"Oswego although not a battle ground during the Revolution, was garrisoned by a strong British force, and was a place of general rendezvous for the English and their allies, Brant, Johnson and others. The place continued in the possession of the English until it was surrendered to the United States, under Jay's treaty, July 15, 1796, and on that day the first American flag was displayed at the fort. Soon thereafter settlers arrived ; the first, Neil McMullen, a merchant from Kingston, who had furnished supplies to the fort prior to its surrender. He brought a frame and put up a house, which is supposed to have been the first frame house built.
"Oswego was captured by the English May 6, 1814. The name Oswego is derived from 'Swa-geh' of the Onondaga dialect, signifying 'Flowing out' or the 'discharging place' of the numerous lakes of Central New York.
"At the present time, Oswego is a thriving city of about 23,000 inhabitants, possessing excellent advantages for commerce on the lake and canal, also railroad facilities; has a fine water power, large manufactories ; beautifully situated, healthy and in other respects a desirable place for business as well as residence."
(1) Not being able fully to make out this word in the MS., I have said, in the text, "illegible." Still, it looks to me like
All signals to be Repeated by commanding officers of corps.
The Detachment of Royal Artillery under the command of Lieut. Glennie, the R. R. N. Yorkers, the Companies of Chasseurs(1) & officers & Rangers(2) of the Indian Department & Canadians Destined for the transport of provisions are to hold themselves in Readiness to embark to morrow Morning at 4 o'clock, for which purpose the officers commandn'g the different Corps are to see that their Boats are loaded this evening; all the ovens to be Imploy'd this evening in Bakeing for the Hessians. Three Canadians out of each of the 7 boats to be Imploy'd as Steersmen to the Royal Yorkers & Hessians, for which in equal Number agreeable to the proportion [of] each Corps, Receipts must be given for the Provision boats. The whole to proceed in the Following order. First, The Command'g officer with such of the staff & Indian Department as are on the Ground.
"the charity," i. e., the sloop Charity. Hence (as we know that this sloop with some guns accompanied the boats for protection) it probably meant that when a great danger arose, the " Charity " would be signaled to advance, as quickly as possible, and aid the convoy.
(1) Col. Claus, however, in his letter to Secretary Knox, above referred to, speaks of only one company of Chasseurs, and that arrived a day or two before the l9th of July.
(2) "The origin of Rangers, since the late Sir Wm. Johnson's time, was to intermix them with the Indians, when on service, and be commanded by the Indian officers. Formerly none but those acquainted with the Indians and their language were admitted, and received half a crown pay; now that distinction, though essentially necessary, is no more made, which makes his commission become an additional useless expense, though very beneficial to him." Col. Claus to Secretary Knox, l6th Oct., 1777.
-1777 JJuly 31st. P- York. The Detachment of the Royal artillery under the command of Lieut. Glenne, the R. R. of N. Y. of Capt. Buvills [Rouville](2) company of Canadians to take in their loading immediat'ly; each captains boat in the royal Yorkers to carry 4 barrels, 10 lieut boats 5 each, lieutenant Anderson J. Wilkerson to carry 4 Barrels each, the privates' boats to carry 6 each, and to hold themselves in readiness
(1) Oswego Falls are about twelve miles southeast from Oswegu on the Oswego river. In early times, the river was called "Onondaga," and the falls after the name of the river. The fall proper is about twelve feet with rapids for about a mile below, which rendered it necessary to have a carrying place on the east side of the river of about a mile, the termini being called the upper and lower landings. There is a fall of about seventy feet from the head of Oswego falls to Oswego, and it took five days to go from Oswego to Fort Bull (at the carrying place at Fort Stanwix) and only three and a-half days to come from Fort Bull to Oswego. This arose from having to contend with the currents in the river. In 1759, a fort was constructed near the eastern end of the falls , thus, between Oswego and Fort Stanwix, there were three forts, viz : the fort at Oswego Falls, Fort Brewerton at the outlet of Oneida Lake, and Fort Bull at the carrying place between the Mohawk river and Wood creek. About 1792, settlements were made at the upper and lower landings of the carrying place and also at the westerly end of the falls. It has always been a good place for catching eels in weirs. B. B. Burt.
The reader should be informed that the hiatus which here occurs in the Orderly Book between the 19th and the 31st of July is due to the fact that at that time the troops of St. Leger and Sir John Johnson were passing from Buck's (Carleton) Island to Oswego Falls in boats.
(2) Captain Rouville, together with Lieutenants Lunday and Glenie mentioned previously in the text, did efficient service in the events which subsequently took place. Col. St. Leger, in his "Account of Occurences at Fort Stanwix," published in the Appendix to Burgoyne's State of the Expedition writes of these officers as follows: "The 4th and 5th of August were employed in making arrangements for opening Wood creek (which the enemy, with the indefatigable labor of one hundred and fifty men, for fourteen days, had most effectually choked up) and the making a temporary road from Pine Ridges upon Fish creek, sixteen miles from the fort, for a present supply of provision and the transport of our artillery. The first was effected by the diligence and zeal of Capt. Bouville [Rouville] * * while Lieutenant Lundy, acting as assistant quartermaster, had rendered the road in the worst of weather, sufficiently practicable to pass the whole artillery and stores, with seven
to embark at 2 o'clock this afternoon to proceed in the Following order.(1)
Royal artillery. Six Companys of the Kings R. R. of N. Y. Capt Rouvill's Company of Canadians, Lieut Col's Company. The officers commanding companys not to allow their boats to fall back or put ashore without orders or a signal for that purpose.(2)
days provision, in two days. * * * It was found that our cannon had not the least effect upon the sod-work of the Fort [Stanwix], and that our royals [cohorns] had only the power of teasing, as a six-inch plank was a sufficient security for their powder magazine, as we learned from deserters. At this time, Lieutenant Glenie of the artillery, whom I appointed to act as assistant engineer, proposed a conversion of the royals (if I may use the expression) into howitzers. The ingenuity and feasibility of this measure striking me very strongly, the business was set about immediately and soon executed, when it was found that nothing prevented their operating with the desired effect but the distance, their chambers being too small to hold a sufficiency of powder."
(1) There is a rapid in Oswego and within one mile of the lake, and several others between that city and Oswego Falls, while, as mentioned in the last note but one, there was a carrying place around the falls of at least a mile. It will thus readily be seen how three days could have been spent by St. Leger in getting around the falls and ready for a start for Fort Stanwix on the 31st of July, at 1 o'clock, P. M.
(2) On the inside of the cover of the Orderly Book is the following entry; " Nicholas Hillyer Sergt enters the Col's Company 10th of April, 1777, then cantoned at Lachine."
END OF THE ORDERLY BOOK.
In order that this interesting document may be brought down to the latest date attainable, I append here, in the text, as a fitting ending, the last official paper of this expedition on the English side, as far as known. It was, as will be seen, written by St. Leger but a few hours previous to his appearance before the walls of Fort Stanwix; his advance, meanwhile, having arrived under the walls of that fort on the evening of the day on which the letter was written. The letter is addressed to Lieutenant Bird of the 8th Regiment, who had, on the 3151 of July, been sent by St. Leger in advance with some sixty of his men and a few Indians.
GENERAL ST. LEGER TO LIEUTENANT BIRD.
"Nine Mile Point, August 2d, 1777.
SIR: I this instant received your letter, containing the account of your operations since you were detached, which I with great pleasure tell you have been sensible and spirited; your resolution of investing Fort Stanwix is perfectly right; and to enable you to do it with greater effect, I have detached Joseph [Thayendanegea] and his corps of Indians to reinforce you. You will observe that I will have nothing but an investiture made; and in case the enemy, observing the discretion and judgment with which it is made, should offer to capitulate, you are to tell them that you are sure I am well disposed to listen to them; this is not to take any honor out of a young soldier's hands, but by the presence of the troops to prevent the barbarity and carnage which will ever obtain where Indians make so superior a part of a detachment; I shall move from hence at eleven o'clock, and be early in the afternoon at the entrance of the creek [Wood creek].
I am. Sir, your most obt. and humble Ser't
BARRY ST. LEGER.
Lieut. Bird, 8th Reg't:'' (1)
(1) Before closing this subject, it may be well, especially as Willett's Narrative, as stated in the Introduction, has become very rare and difficult to procure, to give the result of the expedition of St. Leger against Fort Stanwix in Col. Willett's own words. " Shortly after this [i. e., the capture of Capt. Butler,] the news of the approach of General Arnold, to relieve the fort, having reached the enemy, the Indians being already extremely disaffected, in consequence of the ill success of the siege, and Colonel St. Leger, finding that the mulish obstinacy, as he termed it in a letter written to General Burgoyne, of the garrison, could not readily be overcome, on the 2nd of August, the siege was suddenly abandoned after it had been carried on twenty days. Throughout the whole of the siege, Colonel St. Leger, certainly, made every effort in his power to render it successful. Having sent after Colonel Willett's departure, to Colonel Gansevoort a written summons to surrender, which he found as unavailing as his message to Major Ancrum, he commenced approaching by sap, and had formed two parallels, the second of which brought him near the edge of the glacis, but the fire of the musketry from the covert way, rendered his further progress very difficult, besides, his ordinance was not sufficiently heavy to make any impression from the battery which he had erected. The only way in which he could annoy the garrison, was with his shells, and this was so trifling, as to afford him but a poor prospect of success. It appears, that he made large calculations upon intimidating the garrison with threats; and, perhaps, his expectations were the more sanguine, as Ticonderoga had been but a little time before abandoned, upon the approach of Gen. Burgoyne.
The unexpected and hasty retreat of Col. St. Leger, and his host of Indians, accompanied by Sir John Johnson, whose influence among the settlers along the Mohawk river, it was supposed, would -procure considerable reinforcements, defeated all the calculations that had been made in the event of the success of St. Leger, which was hardly doubted. Great indeed was the disappointment and mortification, when, instead of Colonel St. Leger taking the fort, and, by this means obtaining possession of the Mohawk country, as well as effecting a juncture with General Burgoyne, he was obliged to retreat, wholly baffled in all his designs." Indeed, so great was the panic of the besiegers and such the precipitancy of their flight, that St. Leger left his bombardier asleep in the bomb-battery. They also left their tents standing, their provisions, artillery ammunition, their entire camp equipage and large quantities of other articles enhancing the value of the booty. In very truth, the king's troops had themselves become that very "Rabble " by which term St. Leger in his orders, had so pompously designated the Americans!
Upon the raising of the siege of Fort Schuyler, or Fort Stanwix, as the public always preferred calling it, St. Leger hastened with his scattered forces back to Oswego, and thence to Montreal. From that post he proceeded to Lake Champlain, passing up the same to Ticonderoga for the purpose of joining the army of Burgoyne. While neither himself nor Sir John carried this intention out, some of their officers did, as has been seen in a preceding note. It is, however, very certain that St. Leger fully intended to join Burgoyne. Thus Gen. Burgoyne, in a secret and confidential letter to Gen. Riedesel under date of Sept. 10, 1777, writes as follows: " * * I have, my dear general, to in trust a little matter to your care during your stay at Fort Edward. I desire to have two bateaux, with their oars, buried as quietly as possible. It would also, be well to shovel earth upon them ; and to give them still more the appearance of graves, a cross might be placed upon each hillock. All this must be done in the night, and only by trustworthy soldiers. The teamsters cannot be relied on. The use for which these bateaux are intended, is to help Lieut. Col. St. Leger in crossing the river, in case of circumstances forcing him to march without his ships. This officer has been forced by the bad conduct of the Indians, to retreat on the road to Oswego. He has however, accomplished this without loss, and is now on his march to the army. I have sent him orders as to the necessary measures of precaution he is to take upon arriving on the island at the lower end of Lake George. If he finds that the enemy are not in the vicinity, of the road leading to the army,-and he can keep the march of twenty-four men a secret, he is to cross the river near Fort Edward, at the same time notifying me in advance of his movement, that I may be able to facilitate it from my side. I have told him where he will find the bateaux, viz. inside of Fort Edward. I had given orders to Brigadier General Powell to have your reserve cross at the same time with Colonel St. Leger, and to leave those only behind that belong to the regiment of Prince Frederick."
The sequel to this burying of the bateaux is thus told by Dr. Gordon. In writing in regard to the cutting off of Burgoyne by Gen. Stark's capture of Fort Edward, he says : "The Americans who had been ordered there [Fort Edward] made a discovery, which they greatly improved. Below the fort, close in with the river, they found the appearance of a grave, with an inscription on a board : 'Here lies the body of Lieutenant ----." They were at a loss what it should mean. On searching, they discovered three bateaux [Riedesel with his usual prudence, had, it seemed, buried three instead of two] instead of a body. These the enemy had concealed. Having none of their own, they, by the help of them sent scouting parties across the river [the Hudson] which by falling into a track a mile and a-half beyond, discouraged the enemy's parties from attempting an escape that way." Thus, Burgoyne's and Riedesel's efforts only redounded to the aid of their enemies ! It was undoubtedly to this action of Riedesel in burying the bateaux that Burgoyne refers to in his "State of the Expedition" when, in speaking of the reason why, after the action of the l9th of Sept., at Freeman's farm, he did not immediately retreat, he says: "The time also entitled me to expect Lieut. Col. St. Leger's corps would be arrived at Ticonderoga, and secret means had been long concerted to enable him to make an effort to join me with probability of success."
The miscarriage of St. Leger's expedition, as it has been well epitomised by S. N. Dexter North, was due to the miscalculation of the home government which planned it. The force under his command was a picked one, but altogether too small. See Letter from Col. Claus to Sec'y Knox, N. Y. Col. Doc., Vol. viii, p. 719. "There were three good reasons," continues Mr. North, "to excuse and explain this blunder. First, St. Leger's advance was through an unprotected country and against undisciplined forces; second, it was expected, upon the positive assertion of Sir John Johnson, that at every step of his progress his army would be swelled by a rising tide of Mohawk valley loyalists, until it should reach Albany an irresistible force, sweeping all before it and cutting off the last retreat of the army which held the sources of the Hudson against Burgoyne; third, the alliance of the warlike tribes of the Six Nations was relied upon as insuring a sufficient augmentation of forces and a terribly effective cooperation." Each of these three expectations failed in turn, and the brilliant plan miserably miscarried. In short, as Sir Henry Clinton pithily remarks of the expedition of St. Leger: "If Burgoyne meant to have established himself in Albany, and was sure he could be subsisted there, perhaps he had better have made this [i. e,, St. Leger's Expedition] his principal attack, this failed from inadequacy of numbers and want of common calibre."(1)
"Sir Henry Clinton's MS. notes to Stedman's "History of the American War," in the Library of the late John Carter Brown, of Providence, R.. I.
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