Three Rivers
Hudson~Mohawk~Schoharie
History From America's Most Famous Valleys

The Life and Times of
Sir William Johnson, Bart.,
by William L. Stone
Vol. II
Albany: J. Munsell, 78 State Street, 1865.

Please remember the complaints about George Klock in this book are not about Col. Jacob Klock. ajb webmaster

CONTENTS
Vol. II

CHAPTER I.
1756.

The winter wears away in gloomy inactivity. Capture of Fort Bull by De Levy, 1-Orange and Ulster counties ravaged by the enemy. Apparent indifference of the assembly. Explanation, 2-Victory of the people over the crown on privilege. The instructions of the crown to Sir Danvers Osborn virtually repealed. The Newcastle administration still hope for peace, 3-The Earl of London appointed commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America. Major General Abercrombie, with General Webb, sails from England for America. Arrival of Governor Shirley at Albany, 4-The expedition against Crown Point, under General Winslow, is delayed. Shirley improves the delay by throwing provisions into Oswego, 5-Abercrombie sows discord among the troops, and disgusts the people of Albany, 6-Sir William Johnson holds an important council at Onondaga, with the Confederate and Delaware Indians. Its object, and the causes which led to it, 7-Singular conduct of Governor Morris, of Pennsylvania. The Baronet placed in an embarrassing situation, 10-His views respecting the conduct of Governor Morris, 11 -Important points gained at the council at Onondaga, 12-Treaty of peace concluded between the Delawares and Shawanese, 18-Indian council held at Easton, between Governor Denny and Teedyuscung, 14- Teedyuscung enumerates the wrongs done to his nation in the purchase of lands, 15-Through the exertions of Governor Denny, the Delawares of the Susquehanna become reconciled to the English, 16-Brilliant exploit of Colonel Bradstreet. He throws into Oswego six months' provisions for five thousand men, 17-Captain Rogers and his rangers destroy two of the enemy's vessels on Lake Champlain. 20-Lord Loudoun arrives at Albany. Refuses to grasp the exigencies of the occasion. Noble conduct of the New England officers, 21-Marquis de Montcalm invests Oswego. Surrender of the garrison. Massacre of the garrison by the Indians prevented by the prompt action of the French general, 22-He levels the forts at Oswego to the ground. Sir William Johnson sent to the support of Webb at the German Flats. Abject terror of Webb. He flies in wild consternation to the German Flats, 23-Loudoun abandons offensive operations against Canada. He arrives in New York city, and quarters his troops upon the inhabitants, who protest without avail, Quarrels with Oliver De Lancey, 24-Goes to Boston, 25.

CHAPTER II.
1757.

The storm, predicted by the Baronet, bursts upon the frontier settlements. The Six Nations boldly declare in favor of making peace with the French, and send a deputation to Montreal. A messenger from Johnson to Webb waylaid and scalped, 26-The Six Nations remain firm in their attachment to Sir William. The latter summons the Confederacy to a meeting at Fort Johnson. Sends Captains Butler and Fonda through the different cantons, 27-Active exertions of the Superintendent to arrest the disaffection. Extracts from his journal, 28-Attack upon Fort William Henry by the French repulsed, 30-The Baronet arrives at Fort Edward with Indians and militia. Returns, and establishes his head quarters at Burnet's Field. Dispatches a body of Mohawks to Swegatchie for intelligence, 32-Difficulty between the garrison at Fort Hunter and a party of Mohawks. The Baronet requests Abercrombie to remove the garrison, 83-The Indian council assemble at Fort Johnson, 84-The good effects of the meeting communicated to Peter Wraxall in a letter from the Baronet. 86-Governor Hardy convenes his assembly. His message, 38 -Trouble with the Stockbridge Indians prevented by the interference of the Baronet, 39-The governor desires the assembly to appoint commissioners to settle the boundaries between New York and New Jersey and Massachusetts, 39-Also, at the suggestion of Johnson, recommends the passage of an act annulling fraudulent grants of land, 40-Answer of the assembly. It refuses to vacate the land patents. The ostensible, and the true reason of this refusal. An appropriation made for raising one thousand men to act in concert with Massachusetts. Sir Charles resigns the government, and sails to take command of the expedition against Louisburg, 42.

CHAPTER III.
1757.

Lord Loudoun sails for Halifax, having laid an embargo upon all the seaports from Virginia to Massachusetts. Is joined by Admiral Holburn and George Viscount Howe. Inactivity of the viceroy and failure of the expedition, 43-General Montcalm plans a descent upon Fort William Henry. Exploits of the French partisans, Marin, and Corbiere, upon Lake George, 44-Preparations of the French General, 46-He invests Fort William Henry and summons Colonel Monro to surrender. Poltroonery of Webb, 46-Sir William Johnson hastens to Fort Edward and beg to be sent to the relief of Monro. Sets out, and is ordered back. Colonel Monro forced to surrender, 47-The captured garrison, disregarding Montcalm's orders, supply the Indians with rum. The latter, inflamed with liquor, begin a general massacre of the prisoners, 48-Heroic efforts of Montcalm and his officers to stop the carnage. The survivors are sent, under a strong escort, to Fort Edward. Montcalm exonerated from all blame, 49-Shameful conduct, of Webb. Lord Howe arrives with reinforcements, and calms his fears. The morale of the army destroyed. Johnson returns in disgust to Albany. Desertion of the militia, 50- Governor De Lancey receives the news of the capitulation in Albany, and hastens to New York to vindicate his conduct to the assembly, 51-His explanations received in silence. Reason for this given in a letter from the speaker to the agent in London, 52-Destruction of the Palatine village, and massacre of its inhabitants, by a large force of French and Indians, 54-Sir William unable to leave his bed through illness, sends George Croghan to the scene of the massacre, 55-Upon the return of Croghan, the Baronet writes Abercrombie a sharp letter of remonstrance, 66-Loudoun meditates a declaration of war against, the Six Nations, but is dissuaded from it by Johnson, 57-Confidence reposed in the latter by Governor Denny, 58.

CHAPTER IV.
1758.

The campaign against Canada opens with great spirit. Three formidable expeditions projected, 59-Loudoun is superseded by Abercrombie. The British cabinet resolve to send a large force to America. The colonists enter into the work of cooperation with alacrity, 60-Capture of Louisburg by Admiral Boscawen and Generals Amherst and Wolfe, 61- Destruction of Burnet's Field by a party of Swegatchie Indians. Sir William orders the militia into the field, and repairs to Canajoharie The French continue their efforts to win over the Confederacy, 62-Extracts from Sir William's journal, 68-The Mohawks assure the Baronet of their willingness to join the expedition against Ticonderoga. Abercrombie resolves to lead the expedition in person, 67-The army rendezvous at the head of Lake George. Description of the flotilla on its passage down the lake, 68-Landing of the troops, 70-Death of Lord Howe. Gallant conduct of Bradstreet and Rogers, 71-Johnson joins the army with three hundred Indians. Letter from Johnson to Abercrombie, 72-Preparations of Montcalm to meet the English, 73-The latter are repulsed with great slaughter. Disgraceful retreat of Abercrombie. Consternation among the Colonists, 74-Rogers and Putnam, with a party of rangers, waylaid and defeated at Half-way Brook. Colonel Bradstreet asks, and obtains leave to lead an expedition against Fort Frontinac, 75 -The success of this expedition communicated to Sir William Johnson in a letter from Captain Thomas Butler, 76-Brigadier General Forbes entrusted with the command of the forces destined against Fort Du Quesne. He proposes holding a council with the Six Nations, 77-Sir William successfully opposes the project. Bouquet is sent forward to occupy Loyal Hanna. Defeat of Major Grant, 78-Washington pushes forward, and takes possession of Fort Du Quesne, which receives the name of Pittsburgh, 79-The Delawares and Shawanese again on the war path. Christian Frederick Post undertakes a mission to the Shawanese, 80- His success in bringing about a peace. Greatly aided by Sir William Johnson, 82-Circumstances which prepared the way for Post and Johnson, 83-Delawares and Shawanese send a message of peace to the superintendent. Indian council at Easton. Conspicuous part assumed by Teedyuscung. Object and result of the treaty, 85.

CHAPTER V.
1759.

A new assembly meets. The power of the De Lancey party in the house ceases, 86-The spirit, of faction in the present assembly not rife, 87-The minister plans the reduction of Quebec. Sir Jeffrey Amherst assumes command of the forces in America. His character, 88-Exertions of Sir William Johnson to secure a large number of Indians for the summer's campaign. Holds a conference at the Canajoharie castle, 89-Proceedings of the council, and speeches of different chiefs, 90-Johnson joins Prideaux at Oswego with seven hundred braves, 95-Importance of Niagara as a military and trading post urged upon the lords of trade by the Baronet. General Prideaux, accompanied by Johnson, sails for Niagara, and invests that fortress, 96-Death of General Prideaux. Johnson assumes command, and defeats a body of the enemy under D'Aubry, 97-Captain Pouchet surrenders the fort, 98-The Baronet's praise upon all lips. Effect of the fall of Niagara, 99-Johnson having repaired the works returns to Oswego. Brigadier General Gage arrives at Oswego and takes command. Johnson urges an attack upon La Galette. Vascillating conduct of Gage, as shown in the extracts quoted from the Baronet's private diary, 100-Johnson returns to Port Johnson, 1O5-General Amherst takes possession of Ticonderoga. Captain Loring destroys two of the enemy's vessels on Lake Champlain. Amherst cuts a road through to New England, 106-Major Rogers destroys the Indian settlement of St. Francis, 107-Preparations of General Wollfe for the capture of Quebec. Montclam prepares for defence. Description of the difficulties to be surmounted by the English, 108-Progress of the siege, 109-Wolfe calls a council of war, 110-The heights of Quebec scaled. Astonishment of Montcalm. The two armies join in battle, 111-Death of Wolfe, 112-Death of Montcalm Reception of the news of the fall of Quebec in England and America, 118-Character of Wolfe, 114.

CHAPTER VI.
1759-1760.

General Amherst requests that the troops may be kept in the field two months longer, 115-Mr. De Lancey announces to the assembly the important acquisitions gained from the enemy, 116-The governor farther announces to the assembly the determination of the parent government to prosecute the war with rigor. The house work harmoniously, 117-Heavy loans voted for the prosecution of the war ; also twenty-five hundred pounds to assist the people of Boston, who had suffered from an extensive conflagration. Death of James De Lancey, 118-His character, 119-De Levy sent by De Vaudreuil, invests Quebec with ten thousand men. General Murray attacks the French under De Buerlamarque before Quebec, and is defeated. De Levy raises the siege and returns in haste to Montreal, 120-Johnstown founded by Sir William Johnson, 120-Officious interference of Governor Hamilton in Indian affairs. Johnson holds a council with the Six Nations at Fort Johnson. Its object, 121-The proceedings of the council enclosed by the Baronet in a letter to Amherst, 122-Reply of Amherst, 123-He approves of the Baronet's course with Teedyuscung, 124-Trouble between the Illinois and Mississippi Indians anticipated. Johnson writes to Gage in relation to it, 125-Croghan, at the request of the superintendent, holds an Indian conference at Fort, Pitt, with satisfactory results, 126-Plan of the campaign. Montreal to be attacked from three points. Amherst is joined by Johnson with six hundred Indian warriors, 127-Amherst embarks at Oswego. The posts of Oswegatchie and La Galette fall successively into his hands, 128-Desertion of some of his Indian allies. The Baronet at Fort Levy ratifies a treaty of peace with several hostile tribes, 129-Capitulation of Montreal to the English. Testimony of General Amherst to the humanity of Johnson, 130-Major Rogers sets out to take possession of Detroit and the remote western posts, 131-His perilous journey, 132-Interview with Pontiac; his kindness to the rangers. Rogers takes possession of Detroit in the name of his majesty, 133-Pontiac sees in this act, the downfall of Indian supremacy in America, 134.

CHAPTER VII.
1761.

The political influence of the Indian race begins to wane. Reasons for it, 136-Some Christian Oneidas desire that the English forts may be " kicked out of the way." Shameful treatment of the Indians by unscrupulous traders, 136-Alexander Henry in his travels to Michilmackinac finds the dissatisfaction of the Indian tribes against the English wide spread, 137-The Ohio Company excites the suspicions of the Delaware and Ohio Indians. The wrath of the Six Nations kindled at the rumored settlement of Wyoming. Governor Hamilton writes to Johnson upon the subject, 138-Necessity of conciliating the North Western tribes, Startling plot of the Shawanes to murder the English garrisons in the west discovered by Captain Campbell, 139-Sir William Johnson, at the request of Amherst, determines to visit Detroit. Objects to be attained by the visit, 140-Memoranda of Johnson. Perils of the journey, 141- The Baronet sets out from Fort Johnson, accompanied by John and Guy Johnson. Is overtaken at Fort Stanwix by Colonel Eyre with a letter from Amherst, 142-Johnson holds a conversation with a Tuscarora sachem, and obtains important information, 143-Distributes silver medals to the Indians at Oswego. Holds a small council with the Onondagas, 144-Arrives at Niagara, and dispatches a letter to Amherst, 146-Sends a boat to Sandusky, 146-Calls a council of the Senecas, and makes them a speech, 147-Extracts from his private diary while on his journey, 149-Arrives at Detroit and is waited on by deputations from different tribes. Decides upon the number of men to be stationed at the different posts, 150-Holds a grand council at Detroit, 151-The White Mingo charged with duplicity. The answer of the Western Nations very satisfactory, 152-Gives a grand dinner and ball to the inhabitants of Detroit, and sets out on his return. Stops a day at Sandusky. Is confined to his bed for several days at Niagara. Arrives at Fort Johnson, 153- Johnson's opinion of the Western Confederacy, 154.

CHAPTER VIII.
1761-1762.

Death of George Second, and accession of his grandson, 155-Major General Monckton appointed governor of the colony of New York. The administration of Doctor Colden marked by no event of special moment. Benjamin Pratt receives the appointment of chief justice, 156-James Otis argues against "writs of assistance," 157-Mr. Adams's opinion of the speech of Otis. The colony of New York resist farther encroachment upon their liberties. William Livingston, Scott and Smith enter the lists as champions for the people, 159-The assembly refuse to increase the salary of the chief justice. Colden has gloomy forebodings of the future. Important act passed during the winter session. Agency of Johnson in it, 160-He urges upon Colden the importance of surveying accurately the lands, as the only way to settle the disputes between the whites and Indians, 161-Monckton sails in command of an expedition against Martinico. The Provincials, commanded by General Lyman, 162-M. de la Touche surrenders the island to Monckton who sends Gage to England as the bearer of dispatches, 163-Sir William Johnson devotes his spare moments to the management of his personal affairs. Settles on the north bank of the Mohawk over one hundred families. Gives the Lutherans and Calvinists fifty acres of land each for a parsonage and church. Builds an elegant summer villa, in the present town of Broadalbin, and confers on it the name of Castle Cumberland, 163-Builds, also, a rustic lodge on the south bank of the Sacondaga-since called the Fish House. Takes pleasure in horticulture, fine stock, and is the first to introduce sheep and blood horses into the Mohawk valley. Corresponds with the society for the promotion of arts, 164-Public interests again demand his attention. Appoints a meeting to examine into the complaints of the Delawares, against the Proprietaries of Pennsylvania, 164-The Six Nations invited to Fort Johnson to hear the result of his visit to Detroit. The Confederacy regard with distrust the growing power of the English, 166-The Baronet complains to the board of trade of the fraudulent manner in which the patent of Kayaderosseras has been obtained. General result of the council as regards the Senecas encouraging, 166-The Baronet concludes a treaty at Easton with Teedyuscung. The Delaware king is treacherously burned to death by a few of the Six Nations, 167-The perpetrators of this deed throw the murder on the white settlers, and the Delawares, in revenge, massacre thirty of the settlers at noonday, 168-The Baronet, on his return, tarries in New York to take the oaths of office. Arrives at Fort Johnson in time to celebrate the nuptials of his daughter Nancy, to Captain Clans, 169-Havana surrendered to the earl of Albemarle, by the Spanish governor, 170- Panic, produced throughout the whole Mohawk valley by a drunken Indian, 171-Johnson dismisses the militia, called out on the occasion, to their homes, and holds a small council at Seneca. The various and arduous duties that constantly devolved upon the superintendent, 172- The Baronet prepares the timber for building Johnson Hall. His time greatly taken up in various plans for the education of the Mohawks. Correspondence with Dr. Wheelock upon the subject, 173-Dr. Wheelock speaks in high terms of Joseph Brant. Sir William engaged in active correspondence with Rev. Mr. Graves, of New London, and Rev. Dr. Pomeroy, of New Haven. Is busily engaged during the fall in getting out a new edition, of the prayer book in the Mohawk tongue, 176.

CHAPTER IX.
1763.

Johnson espouses the cause of the Mohawks in their land controversies with William Livingston. History of the infamous manner in which the land was obtained. The moonlight survey, 176-Attorney General Kemp retained by the government on behalf of the government, 177-Rascally conduct of George Klock. Johnson appoints a meeting at the Canajoharie castle for the purpose of investigating the affair, 178-Prompt attendance of the sachems and chief women of the castle. Proceedings of the investigation. Affecting reply of their speaker, Cayenguiragoa, 179 - He produces the bottle of liquor with which they were beguiled by Klock. John Duncan, the attorney for Livingston, fails to establish his claim by cross questioning, 180-His attempts at pacification also fail, 183-Mr. Livingston's character does not come out of the affair entirely unscathed. - Johnson forwards a report of the proceedings to the governor and council. Mr. Livingston executes to the Mohawks a release of all the disputed lands. This result no slight proof of the Baronet's influence, 184-He adjusts a matter of difference between the Mohawks of the Lower Castle and some people from Schenectady, 186-Colonel Eliphalet Dyer proposes to the Baronet to take him into partnership, as the price for his influence in prevailing the Six Nations to part with their Susquehanna lands. The proposition indignantly rejected, 186-The Confederacy, alarmed at the pertinacity of the Connecticut people, send a deputation to Governor Fitch at Hartford, 186-Speech of their sachem, 187-Governor Fitch disclaims any intention of settling on their lands, 188-The Proprietaries of Pennsylvania obtain, in 1768, a deed of the disputed territory. Prophecy of Sir William Johnson fulfilled in the bloody massacre of Wyoming, 189-The treaty at Paris completes the ruin of French power in America, 190.-Dark clouds begin to obscure the western sky. Pontiac conceives the design of driving the English from the continent. Forms a league with the great interior tribes, and plans the capture of the frontier posts, 191-Urgent importance of retaining the friendship of the Six Nations. Johnson sends messages throughout the Confederacy inviting it to a meeting at, the German Flats. The Senecas openly espouse the cause of Pontiac, 192-The other nations remain true to the English. The Senecas, at the urgent solicitation of the Baronet, agree to remain neutral. The importance of neutrality, thus obtained, cannot be too highly estimated, 193-Captain Claus, by the direction of his father-in-law, holds a congress at the Sault St. Louis with the St. Francis, Swegatchie and other Canadian tribes. Sir William orders out the militia, and sends Indian scouts to Crown Point. Is waited on by the Mohawks, who pledge themselves to protect his person. Arms his tenantry ; and surrounds Johnson Hall with a strong stockade, 194-As a result of these measures, the province of New York comparatively unmolested during Pontiac's war, 195.

CHAPTER X.
1763.

Detroit the most strongly fortified of the remote western posts. Its situation, 196-The intention of Pontiac to capture the town frustrated. Fury of Pontiac. He lays siege to the place, 197-A reinforcement sent to the garrison under Lieutenant Cuyler, attacked at the mouth of the Detroit river and routed. The condition of the garrison becomes critical, 198-The route of Cuyler's party communicated to Amherst by Sir William Johnson. Captain Dalyell sent to the relief of the place. Marches out to attack Pontiac, falls into an ambuscade and is routed and slain, 199- Colonel Bouquet is dispatched by Amherst to the relief of Fort Pitt, 200 -Arrives successively at Forts Bedford and Ligonier, 201-The savages lay an ambush for him near Bushy Run. Discovers it, and by a successful strategy defeats the Indians with great slaughter, 202-Raises the siege of Fort Pitt. Joy of the garrison. Receives the thanks of the king and the assembly of Pennsylvania, 203-A large deputation of chiefs, accompanied by six friendly Senecas, visit Johnson Hall, and hold a conference with their GREAT BROTHER, 204-Proceedings of the Confederacy with the recreant Senecas, 205-The Baronet places "a good English axe" in the hands of the Caughnawagas, 206-A party of Senecas lie in wait for, and massacre a convoy near Fort Schlosser, 207-The schooner Gladwin succeeds in reaching Detroit with provisions. The Indians despair of capturing the place. The hopes of Pontiac blasted, 208-Pontiac deserving of deep commiseration. Deserted by his allies lie raises the siege of Detroit, and goes to the tribes of the Maumee, 209 -The close of the year marked by a dark page in the history of Pennsylvania. A band of religious fanatics in the towns of Paxtang and Donnegal resolve upon the destruction of the whole Indian race, 210- They fall upon, and murder in cold blood the Canestogoes, an inoffensive and friendly clan of Moravian Indians. Horrible barbarities perpetrated by them, 211-The Pennsylvanian government attempt to place the remnant of the clan under the protection of the Baronet. Defeated by Colden and his council. Finally they remove to Wyalusing, 212-And ultimately join the Moravian Indians beyond the Ohio, 213.

CHAPTER XI.
1764.

Sir William Johnson actively engaged in fitting out war parties against the Delaware and Shawanese villages. Captain Montour defeats and captures Captain Bull, son of Teedyuscung, 214-Joseph Brant surprises a band of Delawares and kills their chief. These measures strike the hostile Senecas with dismay, 215-They visit Johnson Hall and sign preliminary articles of peace, 216-General Gage fits out two expeditions against, those tribes still hostile to the English, 216-The character of Colonel Bradstreet as given by Parkman eminently just, 217-Johnson, through Indian runners, invites the tribes coming under his jurisdiction, to meet him at Niagara. Manner in which the superstitious Objibwas received one of Johnson's runners, 218-Johnson arrives at Niagara, and is greeted with a peculiarly gratifying sight, 219-An incident that happens at this time threatens to thwart all his efforts, 220-Proceedings of the treaty, 221-The Senecas relinquish to the British crown a tract of land four miles in width on either side of the river from Lake Ontario to Lake Erie. They make the Baronet a present of all the Islands in Niagara river, who in turn cedes them to his sovereign, 222-He returns home and advertises in the newspapers those prisoners whom he had rescued from captivity, 223--The peace thus made diffuses general joy throughout the province, 224-Bradstreet sets out on his expedition, 224-His inexcusable and singular conduct, 225-Captain Morris is saved from death by Pontiac, 227-Bradstreet oversteps his authority in concluding a peace at Detroit, 228-Is severely reprimanded by General Gage, and refuses to obey his orders, 229-Unfortunate termination of the expedition, 230-General Gage thinks that the Baronet's time is continually occupied in "patching up what others have put out of order," 231-History of the New Hampshire grants, 231-Colonel Bouquet sets off from Fort Pitt on his expedition into the heart of the Shawanese country, 234-Bouquet's conduct contrasted with that of Bradstreet. He accomplishes the objects of the expedition, and returns to Fort Pitt, 236-The closing year brings no relaxation to the labors of the Baronet, 237.

CHAPTER XII.
1765.

Indian hostilities by no means ended, 238-A party of Senecas arrive at the Hall, bringing with them Squash Cutter and Long Coat, 239- Croghan draws up a plan for the management of Indian affairs, and submits it to Johnson for his approval. The latter sounds the Six Nations in relation to a lasting boundary line, 240-Having ascertained their wishes, he turns his attention to the Ohio deputies, and concludes with them a treaty of peace, 241-He relinquishes Captain Bull to the Ohio deputies, 242-Squash Cutter falls a victim to the small pox, 242- The Baronet entertains at the Hall Lady Susan O'Brian and her husband, 243-Molly Brant, spoken of by Lady Susan as a "well bred and pleasant lady," 244-Lord Adam Gordon visits the Baronet. John Johnson sent by his father to England. Croghan is sent by the Superintendent into the country of the Illinois, 245-Repulse of Major Loftees in his attempt to occupy Fort Chartres, 246-Lieutenant Frazer captured, and rescued from death by Pontiac, 247-Croghan and his party fall into an ambush, and are taken prisoners by a war party of Kickapoos and Musquattamies. Sir William Johnson's opinion in relation to this attack, 248-Interview between Croghan and Pontiac. The Ottawa chieftain acknowledges that he has been deceived by the French, and offers the calumet and peace belt to Sir William Johnson, 249-Croghan dispatches expresses to Fort Pitt and Johnson Hall, and sets out for Detroit. Arrives at that post and delivered to the Western Nations the road belt of Sir William Johnson. The tree of peace is then planted and the pipe of peace smoked, 250-Croghan having obtained from Pontiac a promise to meet Sir William Johnson the next spring at Oswego, arrives at the Hall, 251-Captain Sterling takes possession of Fort Chartres, and receives from St. Ange the last token of French supremacy in the country of the Illinois, 252.

CHAPTER XIII.
1765.

George Grenville and Lord North devise a plan for raising a revenue by the sale of stamps to the colonists. The colonists receive the news with universal indignation, 253-Otis advocates the views of the people in a series of pamphlets. Andrew Oliver hung in effigy by a mob in Boston, 254-Farther acts of the mob, 255-A general congress of the colonies held in New York, which adopts a declaration of rights, 256-Formation in New York of the Sons of Liberty. Their proceedings. General Gage orders down from Crown Point a company of the sixtieth regiment, and Colden shuts himself up in the fort, 257-The common council yield to the mob. Resolutions adopted by the Sons of Liberty, 259-Sir Henry Moore arrives in New York as the successor of Governor Monckton. He yields to the wishes of the people. Meeting of the assembly, 260- The opening address of the Governor contains no reference to existing troubles. The action of the assembly fails to keep pace with public sentiment, 261-The assembly take offense at a letter sent into their body signed FREEDOM, 262-The governor demands of the assembly provisions for the troops. A committee of the whole house report against it, 263- An enumeration of the different acts passed at this session. The views of Sir William Johnson upon the great questions of the day, 264-His letters at this time cautious and non-committal, 265-The Sons of Liberty still in the ascendant, 266.

CHAPTER XIV.
1766.

Sir William Johnson presents a conspicuous mark for the shafts of malice and jealousy. Receives intelligence that his son, John, has been Knighted by the King. Erects a grist mill for his tenantry; builds an Episcopal church at Schenectady ; and fits up a Masonic Lodge at the Hall, 267-Receives the appointment of commander in chief of the militia for the northern district of New York. Appoints commissaries of trade at Oswego and the different frontier posts, 268-The good effect of these measures soon apparent, 269-Continued opposition to the stamp act. The mob attack the house of Henry Van Schaack, the Albany postmaster, 269-Parliament alarmed, repeals the obnoxious act, 270-Statue erected to William Pitt. Opening message of Governor Moore, 271-The lime for the promised visit, of the Ottawa King arrives. The Baronet sends Hugh Crawford to Pontiac with orders to accompany the chieftain to Oswego as a body guard, 273-Fears of Pontiac for his personal safely. Curious incident on his journey to Oswego. Delay of the Baronet in reaching Oswego. The villainy of Klock the cause, 274-Arrives at Oswego, and opens the council. Picturesque appearance of the assemblage. Johnson covers the grave of a great Huron Sachem with a black belt of wampum, 275-Takes a whiff from the great calumet of peace, and begins his speech, 276-The great Ottawa chieftain replies, holding in his hand the chain belt. Satisfactory termination of the interview. Pontiac launches his canoe upon Lake Ontario, and is soon lost to eight, 278-Johnson receives the thanks of the King in a letter from the Earl of Shelburne, 279-Trouble in Dutchess county. The rioters quelled by the appearance of troops, 280-Governor Moore settles the boundary line between New York and Quebec, and pays a visit to Johnson Hall. Purchases a large tract of land of the Oneidas on the Mohawk above the German Flats, 281-The declaratory act overshadows the colonists with gloom. Animosities arise between the citizens and soldiery, 283-The governor prorogues the assembly, 283-The Paxton men continue their bloody work upon the frontiers. Johnson fears that an Indian war is inevitable, 284.

CHAPTER XV.
1767.

The British cabinet regret the repeal of the Stamp act, 285- The king gives his assent to an act for imposing a duty on tea, paper, &c. Richard Henry Lee writes against the act, 286-The British government exasperate the colonists with open eyes, as shown in their directing Gage to put Fort George, Ticonderoga and Crown Point on a war footing, 287 -The duties of the Indian department leave Sir William no time for relaxation. He receives an appeal of some Nahantics of Rhode Island, 287-His influence with the Six Nations solicited by Governors Sharpe and Penn in reference to a boundary line over the Alleghanies. Invites the Confederacy to meet him at the German Flats, 288-Obtains permission from the Six Nations for surveyors to run the boundary. Governor Fauquier of Virginia desires the Six Nations to become reconciled to the Cherokees, 289-The Baronet is attacked by his old complaint, dysentery, and visits the High Rock spring in the present town of Saratoga Springs, N. Y. Returns home improved in health, 290-The popularity of Saratoga Springs dates from this visit. Sir William sets out for the great fire place of the Confederacy to condole the loss of the chief ; Sachem of the Seneca nation, 291-He draws up an elaborate review of Indian relations, for the perusal of the lords of trade. Different measures recommended in it, 292-Corresponds with Dr. Wheelock in relation to moving the Moor charity school, into the Mohawk Valley. The jealousy of ecclesiastics at Albany thwart his wishes. The school receives a charter under the name of Dartmouth College, 294-Three Cherokee chieftains, accompanied by Colonel Philip Schuyler, arrive at the Hall, 294.

CHAPTER XVI.
1768-1769.

The borderers still bent on hostilities. Murder of the white Mingo. Settlements in defiance of the King's proclamation, begun along the Monongahela and Red Stone creek, 295-The Delawares and Shawanese polish their hatchets, and prepare for war. Pennsylvania, alarmed, votes twenty five hundred pounds for presents. Johnson thinks good laws, properly enforced, a better guaranty for peace than presents, 296-The Six Nations come to the council at the Hall with scowling brows. Johnson dissipates their anger; and the Confederacy concludes a joint treaty with the Cherokee deputies, 297-Through the vigilance of the superintendent the congress of the Western nations comes to nought. He takes a violent cold, and, by the advice of his physician, goes to the sea side, 298-The history of New York imperfect without an allusion to the great patent of KAYADEROSSERAS. History of the patent and the controversy concerning it, 299-Johnson's agency in it, 300-Procures a release of part of the patent from the patentees to the Mohawks, 302-The delay in settling the boundary a continual source of irritation to the Six Nations, 802-Cogent reasons why the boundary should be settled. Alarm of the wealthy trading companies. Governor Franklin corresponds with Johnson in relation to the purchase of a large tract of land south of the Ohio, and the forming of a colony, 303-Benjamin Franklin applies to the Crown for a grant of the land, but fails, at that time, to obtain it. The company afterward formed under the name of the Walpole Company, 304-Shelburne authorizes the Baronet to adjust the boundary with the Six Nations at once, 304-TREATY OF FORT STANWIX. Its proceedings in detail , 306-In adjusting the boundary, the Baronet is forced to deviate from the royal instructions. Takes a deed from the Six Nations to the King of the land now known as the states of Kentucky and Western Virginia, 308-The Six Nations give a deed to the proprietaries of Pennsylvania of the Wyoming lands. Fort Stanwix, by order of the commander in chief, is dismantled, 309-A new assembly convened. The right of Parliament to tax America freely discussed by the colonists, 310-Sir Henry Moore lays before the assembly a letter from the Earl Of Hillsborough, 311-The address of the assembly gives little satisfaction to the representative of the Crown, who forthwith dissolves that body, 312.

CHAPTER XVII.
1769-1770.

Quiet state of the Six Nations. Indian teachers, supported by the Baronet, diffuse among the tribes a taste for reading and peaceful avocations, 314 -He builds, at his own expense, a church at Canajoharie for the Mohawks. Professors Danford and Willard of Cambridge visit Johnson Hall, 315-Philip Schuyler has a misunderstanding with Johnson; writes a letter of explanation which is not satisfactory, 316-Is reelected to the assembly. The election in New York city hotly contested, 317-In the new assembly the De Lancey interest prevails. John Cruger chosen speaker, 318-Governor Moore complains of the manner in which the colony's agent is appointed, and recommends another. The assembly decline to adopt his views, 319-The division of Albany county now first contemplated. Schuyler proposes a plan, which is opposed by Johnson. Schuyler's bill lost, 320-Startling news from Detroit arrives at Niagara. Fears of the Detroit garrison prove groundless, 321-Johnson sets out on a. tour of inspection through the Upper Castles. His canoe is upset in Onondaga lake, and he, himself, meets with a severe accident. Distributes large quantities of Indian corn to the Onondagas, and returns home, 322-The King confers upon him the land known as the ROYAL GRANT. History of the ROYAL GRANT, 323-Death of Sir Henry Moore, 325-The government, devolves for the third time upon Dr. Colden. Appearance of a stormy session. Sir William expresses his views on the menacing aspect of affairs. Debate in the house of commons, 326-The Sons of Liberty again active, 328-They are addressed in the fields by John Lamb, 329-Hatred between the Sons of Liberty and the soldiers. Destruction of the Liberty pole, 330-BATTLE of GOLDEN HILL, 331-The Boston massacre, 332-New York entitled to the honor of striking the first blow, 333-The Cherokees invite the Six Nations to join in a crusade against the South Western tribes. Sir William placed in an embarrassing position. Appoints a congress at the German Flatts, 334-Writes to the Sons of Liberty in reference to Indian goods, 335-Spends a portion of the early Summer on the banks of the Sacondaga. Arrives at the German Flats. Object of the council attained, 336-The effect of the non-importation acts productive of anxiety to the Confederacy, 337-The Earl of Dunmore arrives in New York as the successor of the late Sir Henry Moore. His character; prefers the delights of the chase, to controversies with his legislature, 338-The Baronet invited to take a share in a copper mine, but declines. His health begins to fail, 339.

CHAPTER XVIII.
1771-1772.

Sir William Johnson's new settlement becomes a flourishing village. The Baronet supplies his tenantry with lumber; builds a stone church for their use, 340-Active in adorning his estate. The valley of the Mohawk, through his efforts assumes the appearance of a rich farming country, 341-Is in constant correspondence with the Venerable Society for propagating the gospel in foreign parts. Exercises a direct supervision over the temporal and spiritual condition of the Mohawks, 342- Rev. Samuel Kirkland receives his cordial sympathy and support, 348 - Is confined to the hall by ill health ; improves the opportunity to write a series of interesting letters to Arthur Lee of Virginia upon the manners, customs and government of the Six Nations. Spanish traders along the Mississippi endeavor to incite the western nations to revolt, 344- Indian council at Johnson Hall. The Baronet expresses himself satisfied with the conduct of the Six Nations, 346 - Sir William Tryon, Bart, arrives in New York as the successor of Lord Dunmore, 346 - Address of the new governor. The answer of the Assembly an echo to the opening message. Subserviency of that body, 347 - Project of dividing Albany county into two counties again discussed, 348 - Schuyler writes to Johnson upon the subject, 349 - The plan proposed by the Baronet for the division of the new county of Tryon into districts adopted by the Assembly, 350 -Another county made north of Saratoga called Charlotte. Johnstown appointed by Tryon as the Shire-town. All the civil officers recommended by Johnson, with but one exception appointed. Erection of a jail and court-house, 351 - Johnson declines an invitation to visit New Brunswick, as one of the trustees of Queen's College. Governor Tryon and wife visit the Hall. Joseph Brant complains to the governor of the rascality of Klock, 352 - Tryon reviews three regiments of militia, and returns home. Styles Johnson the slave of the Savages. The Baronet receives the appointment of Major General of the northern department, 354 - Benjamin Franklin urges upon the minister his favorite plan of the Ohio settlement. Obtains for it the Royal assent. Dartmouth desires Sir William to inform the Six Nations of the Royal intentions. The latter obtains the assent of the confederacy to the plan, 356-Fort Pitt dismantled to conciliate the Indian tribes, 356 - Rev. Dr. Cooper lays before Hlllsborough a memorial drawn up by Johnson, setting forth the spiritual wants of the Indians, 366 - Lord Dartmouth succeeds Hillsborough. Dr. Cooper hopes much from the piety of Dartmouth. Describes his character in a letter to the Baronet, 357 - Colonels Guy Johnson and Hendrick Frey elected representatives from the new county of Tryon. Sir William Johnson at this time the most influential man in the province, 368.

CHAPTER XIX.
1773-1774.

Guy Johnson an active member in the Assembly. Instructed by his father-in-law, he frames several measures for the improvement of the new county. His bills all passed, 369-Discussion in the Assembly on the bill providing against counterfeit money. History of the debate given in a letter to the Baronet from his son-in-law, 360 - Philip Schuyler proposes a substitute which is adopted, 361 - The boundary line between New York and Massachusetts settled by commissioners appointed for that purpose. Marriage of Sir John Johnson to Miss Mary Watts of New York city, 362-The Baronet goes to New London for his health. Affairs between the mother country and her colonies again assume a threatening hue, 363 - Burning of the Gaspee. The tea thrown overboard in Boston harbor. New York not behind her sister colonies in resisting ministerial oppression. The Sons of Liberty call a public meeting, which is addressed by Whitehead Hicks, and John Lamb, 365 - This spirit of resistance not shared in by the Assembly which had of late grown very subservient. The session of the Assembly ends without having, in a single instance, come into collision with the governor, 366- This profound tranquility very remarkable from the raging of the political elements all around New York, 367.

CHAPTER XX.
1774.

Sir William Johnson a close observer of the signs of the times. His sympathies with the people. If he had lived, would probably have taken his stand with the people, 369 - Cresap's war. Account of the family of Logan, 370 -Logan's brother and sister butchered in cold blood. The Bald Eagle, an aged and inoffensive chief, shot while paddling his canoe, 372-Murder of Silver Heels, 373-The Six Nations receive intelligence of these wanton murders, and desire to hold a council with the Baronet without delay. The request is granted, and six hundred of the Confederates assemble at the Hall. The efforts of Johnson at this crisis unremitting, 374-Although suffering under his old complaint, yet he holds a council with the chiefs, 375 -Addresses the Indians for over two hours under a burning July sun. The Sachems disperse to prepare their reply this last effort of the Baronet was too much for his overtaxed system. He is carried to his library, 376 - His death, 377 - Stupefaction of the Indians upon hearing the sad news. They depart to their encampment to prepare the usual ceremony of condolence for the death of their Great Brother, 378 - Obsequies of the late Baronet. The pall borne by Governor Franklin, Goldsbrow Banyar and Stephen DeLancy. The Indians attend the funeral in a body. Early the following morning they perform the ceremony of condolence, 379 - Sir William Johnson is succeeded in his title and estates by his son Sir John Johnson. Col. Guy Johnson, assisted by Colonel Claus receives the reins of authority as Superintendent of the Indian Department, 381 - Character of Sir William Johnson, 382.

APPENDIX.

I. Speech of Sachem Abraham, relating the wrongs to which his nation had been subjected by the whites, 389.

II. Instructions given to Lt. Col. Farquahar, by Sir Wm. Johnson, 392.

III. Private manuscript diary kept by Sir Wm. Johnson, at Niagara and Oswego, 1759, 394.

IV. Private manuscript diary kept by Sir Wm. Johnson, on his journey to and from Detroit, 1761, 429.

V. Sketch of Johnson Hall (engraving), 478.

VI. Manuscript letter from Sir Wm. Johnson to Arthur Lee, Esq., of the Philosophical Society, upon the language, customs, &c., of the Six Nations, 481.

Vll. An account of the location of Indian tribes, by Sir Wm. Johnson, 488.

VIII. Last Will and Testament of Sir Wm. Johnson, 492.

IX. Sketch of Sir John Johnson, 502.

X. Account of the disinterment and reburial of the remains of Sir William Johnson, in the early Summer of 1862, 529.

XI. Address of the Field officers, Captains and Subalterns of the militia, to Sir John Johnson, 530.

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